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A Multidisciplinary Bibliography
Social Sciences
Sociology
The Juggler (Conflagration) by Karin Turner Despite long-standing claims by elites that Blacks, women, Latinos, and other similarly derogated groups in the United States remain incapable of producing the type of interpretive, analytical thought that is labeled theory in the West, powerful knowledges of resistance that toppled former social structures of social inequality repudiate this view. Members of these groups do in fact theorize, and our critical social theory has been central to our political empowerment and search for justice.
Patricia Hill Collins

Adler, Karen S. "'Always Leading Our Men in Service and Sacrifice': Amy Jacques Garvey, Feminist Black Nationalist." In Race, Class, and Gender: Common Bonds, Different Voices. eds. Esther Ngang-ling Chow, Doris Wilkinson and Maxine Baca Zinn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996.

Ahmed, Sara. "Embodying Diversity: Problems and Paradoxes for Black Feminists." Race, Ethnicity, & Education 12, no. 1 (March 2009): 41-52.

Alexander-Floyd, Nikol G. "Disappearing Acts: Reclaiming Intersectionality in the Social Sciences in a Post-Black Feminist Era." Feminist Formations 24, no. 1 (Spring 2012): 1-25.

Alibaruho, G.L. "The Attempt to Restructure Female Roles in Afro-American community." Humboldt Journal of Social Relations 3, no. 1 (1975): 44-47.

Almquist, Elizabeth. "Black Women and the Pursuit of Equality." In Women: A Feminist Perspective. ed. Jo Freeman. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield, 1979. Reprinted in Women and the Politics of Culture, eds Michele Wenders Zak and Patricia A. Moots. (New York: Longman, 1983).

          . Minorities, Gender, and Work.Lexington, MA: DC Heath and Company, 1979.

          . "Untangling the Effects of Race and Sex: The Disadvantaged Status of Black Women." Social Science Quarterly 56, no. 1 (1975): 129-142.

Amoah, Jewel. "Back on the Auction Block: A Discussion of Black Women and Pornography." National Black Law Journal 14, no. 2 (1997): 204-221.

Arnold, Regina.Black Women in Prison: The Price of Resistance." In Women of Color in U.S. Society, eds. Maxine Baca Zinn and Bonnie Thornton 171-184. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.

          . "Learnfare and Black Motherhood: The Social Construction of Deviane." In Critical Race Feminism: A Reader, ed. Adrien Katherine Wing. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Austin, Regina.Black Women, Sisterhood, and the Difference/Deviane Divide. In Critical Race Feminism: A Reader, ed. Adrien Katherine Wing. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Baca Zinn, Maxine. "Family, Race, and Poverty in the Eighties." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 14, no. 4 (1989): 856-874.

Bambara, Toni Cade. "What it Means to Be a Black Woman." The Black Collegian 35 (1980): 34.

Banks, Ingrid. Hair Matters: Beauty, Power, and Black Women's Consciousness. New York: New York University Press, 2000.

Barnett, Bernice McNair. "Invisible Southern Black Women Leaders in the Civil Rights Movement: The Triple Constraints of Gender, Race, and Class." In Race, Class, and Gender: Common Bonds, Different Voices. eds. Esther Ngang-ling Chow, Doris Wilkinson and Maxine Baca Zinn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996.

Beauboeuf-Lafontant, Tamara. "Keeping Up Appearances, Getting Fed Up: The Embodiement of Strength among African American Women." Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism 5, no. 2 (2005): 104-123.

          . "Strong Black Women?: Exploring Relationships Between Deviant Womanhood and Weight." Gender and Society 17, no. (February 2003): 111+.

Boyd-Franklin, Nancy. "Black Family Life-Styles: A Lesson in Survival." In Class, Race, and Sex: The Dynamics of Control, eds. Amy Swerdlow and Hanna Lessinger. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1983.

Brand, Dionne. "Black Women and Work: The Impact of Racially Constructed Gender Roles on the Sexual Division of Labour.Part One" Fireweed 25 (Fall 1987): 28- 37.

Brewer, Rose M. "Black Women and Feminist Sociology: The Emerging Perspective." American Sociologist 20, no. 1 (1989): 57-70.

Brooks, Siobhan. "Black Feminism In Everyday Life: Race, Mental Illness, Poverty and Motherhood." In Colonize This: Young Women of Color on Today's Feminism, eds Daisy Hernandez and Bushra Rehman. New York: Seal Press, 2002.

          . Exotic Dancing and Union Organizing: The Challenges of Feminist and Antiracist Organizing at the Lusty Lady Theater". In Feminism and Antiracism: International Stuggles for Justice, eds. France Winddance Twine and Kathleen Blee.New York: New York University Press, 2002.

          . Unequal Desires: Race and Erotic Capital in the Stripping Industry. New York: SUNY Press, 2010.

Brown, Elsa Barkley. "'What Has Happened Here': The Politics of Difference in Women's History and Feminist Politics." Feminist Studies 18, no. 2 (1992): 295-312.

Brown, Ruth Nicole. Black Girlhood Celebration: Toward a Hip-Hop Feminist Pedagogy. New York: Peter Lang, 2009.

Bruce, Josephine. "What Has Education Done for Colored Women." Voice of the Negro 1, no. 7 (1904): 294-298.

Brush, Paula Stewart. "The Influence of Social Movement on Articulations of Race and Gender in Black Women's Autobiographies." Gender& Society 13, no. 1 (February 1999): 120-137.

Buchanan, NiCole T. "Nexus of Race and Gender Domination: Racialized Sexual Harassment of African American Women." In In the Company of Man: Male Domination and Sexual Harassment, eds. James E. Gruber and Phoebe Morgan. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2005.

Buchanan, NiCole T., Isis H. Settles, and Krystal C. Woods. "Comparing Sexual Harassment Subtypes Among Black and White Women BY Military Rank: Double Jeopardy, The Jezebel, and The Cult of True Womanhood." Psychology of Women Quarterly 32 (2008): 347-361.

Burgess, N.J. "Gender Roles Revisited: The Development of the 'Woman's Place' Among African American Women in the United States." Jouranls of Black Studies 24, no. 4 (1994): 391-401.

Bush-Baskette, Stephanie. "The War on Drugs as a War Against Black Women." In Crime Control and Women: Feminist Implications of Criminal Justice Policy, ed. Susan S. Miller. Thosand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998.

Byrd, Rudolph P. and Beverly Guy-Sheftall, eds. Traps: African American Men on Gender and Sexuality. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Campbell, Bebe Moore and Joan Morgan. "Daddy's Girl." Essence June 1992, 72+.

Carastathis, Anna. "Basements and Intersections." Hypathia. 28, no. 4 (November 2013): 698-715.

Carroll, Rebecca. Sugar in the Raw: Voices of Young Black Girls in America. New York: Crown, 1997.

Carruthers, Iva. "Challenges of Black Womanhood: A Proverbial Dialogue." The Black Collegian 35 (1980): 31-33.

Chambers, Veronica. "Betrayal Feminism." In Listen Up: Voices from the Next Feminist Generation. Seattle, WA: Seal Press, 1995.

          ."Remembering the Future:Discrimination Among Feminists." Ms. September-October 1997, 91-.

          ."Which Counts More, Gender or Race?" New York Times 25 December 1994, sec. 6, p. 16.

Chapman, Katherine Davis. "Afro_American Women and their Work." In The Collected Works of Katherine Davis Chapman, ed. Claudia Tate. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Clarke, Kristen. "Toward a Black Feminist Libeartion Agenda: Race, Gender, and Violence." Souls 2, no. 4 (Fall 2000): 80-88.

Cole Johnnetta Betsch and Beverly Guy-Sheftall. Gender Talk: The Struggle for Women's Equality in African American Communities. New York: One World Ballantine Books, 2003.

Collins, Patricia Hill. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment.Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1995.Reprint, New York: Routledge, 1991.

          . Black Sexual Politics: African Americans, Gender and the New Racism. New York: Routledge, 2004.

          . "A Comparison of Two Works on Black Family Life." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 14, no. 4 (1989): 875-84.

          . "Defining Black Feminist Thought." In The Second Wave: A Reader in Femininst Theory, ed. Linda Nicholson. New York: Routledge, 1997.

          . "Feminism in the Twentieth Century." In Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia, ed. Darlene Clark Hine. Brooklyn, NY: Carlson Publishing, 1993.

          . Fighting Words: Black Women and the Search for Justice. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998.

          . "Gender Black Feminism, and Black Political Economy." The Annals of the American Acdemy of Political and Social Science 568 (March 2000): 41-53. Reprined in The Study of African American Problems: W.E.B. Du Bois's Agenda, Then and Now, eds. Elijah Anderson, and Tukufu Zuberi, (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, Publications, 2000).

          . "How Much Difference Is Too Much?: Black Feminist Thought and the Politics of Postmodern Social Theory." Current Perspectives in Social Theory 17 (1997): 3-37.

          . "It's All in the Family: Intersections of Gender, Race, and Nation." Hypatia 13, no. 3 (1998): 62-82.

          . "Learning From the Outsider Within: The Sociological Significance of Black Feminist Thought." Social Problems 33, no. 6 (1986): 14-32. Reprinted in (En)Gendering Knowledge: Feminists in Academe, eds. Joan Hartman and Ellen Messer-Davidow, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).

          . "The Meaning of Motherhood in Black Culture and Black Mother-Daughter Relationships." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 4, no. 2 (1987): 3-10.

          . On Intellectual Activism. Philadelphia, PA: Temple Universtity Press, 2013.

          . "The Social Construction of Black Feminist Thought. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 14, no. 4 (1989): 745-773. Reprinted in Words of Fire: An Anthology of African-American Feminist Thought, ed. Beverly Guy-Sheftall (New York: New Press, 1995). Reprinted in The Black Feminist Reader, eds. Joy James and Tracey Denean Sharpley-Whiting (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000). Reprinted in Feminism and 'Race', ed. Kum Kum Bhavnani, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001)

          . Thematic Content of Black Feminist Thought: Implications for Sociology. Association Paper. North Central Sociological Association, 1986.

          . " What's In a Name: Womanism, Black Feminism, and Beyond." The Black Scholar 26, no. 1 (1996): 9-17.

          . "Who's Going On?: Black Feminist Thought and the Politics of Postmodernism." In Working the Ruins: Feminist Poststructural Theory and Methods in Education, eds. Elizabeth A. St. Pierre and Wanda S. Pillow. New York Routledge, 2000.

Craig, Maxine Leeds. Ain't I a Beauty Queen?: Black Women, Beauty, and the Politics of Race. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Davis, Deirdre E. "The Harm That Has No name: Street Harassment, Embodiment, and African American Women." In Critical Race Feminism: A Reader, ed. Adrien Katherine Wing. New York: New York University Press, 1997. Reprinted inGender Struggles: Practical Approaches to contemporary Feminism, eds. Constance L. Mui and Julien S. Murphy (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002).

Dickerson, Bette J. African-American Single Mothers: Understanding Their Lives and Families. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1995.

Dickerson, Bette J, and Nicole Rousseau. "Black Senior Women and Sexuality." In Black Sexualities: Probing Powers, Passions, Practices, and Policies, eds. Juan Battle and Sandra L. Barnes. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Universtiy Press, 2010.

Dill, Bonnie Thornton. "Dialectics of Black Womanhood." In Black Women in America: Social Science Perspectives, ed. Micheline R. Malson et al Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. Reprinted in Feminism and History, ed. Joan Wallach Scott. (New York: Oxford Universtiy Press, 1996.

          . "'On the Hem of Life': Race, Class, and the Prospects for Sisterhood." In Class, Race, and Sex: The Dynamics of Control, ed. Amy Swerdlow, and Hanna Lessinger. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1983.

          . Our Mother's Grief: Racial Ethnic Women and the Maintenance of Families. Research Paper 4, Center for Research on Women. Memphis, TN: Memphis State University, 1986.

          . "Race and Gender: Revisioning the Social Sciences." In Doing Feminism: Teaching and Research in the Academy, ed. Mary Anderson et al. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1997.

          . "Race, Class, and Gender: Prospects for an All-Inclusive Sisterhood". Feminist Studies 9, no. 1 (1983): 131-150.

Du Bois, W.E.B. "The Damnation of Women." In Traps: African American Men on Gender and Sexuality, eds. Rudolph P. Byrd and Beverly Guy-Sheftall. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Dugger, Karen. "Social Location and Gender-Role Attitudes: A Comparison of Black and White Women." In Race, Class, and Gender: Common Bonds, Different Voices. eds. Esther Ngang-ling Chow, Doris Wilkinson, Maxine Baca Zinn.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996.

Eichelberger, Brenda. "Voices on Black Feminism." Quest: A Feminist Quarterly 3, no. 4 (Spring 1977): 16-33.

Elliott, Sinikka. "Raising Teenagers in Hostile Environments: How Race, Class, and Gender Matter for Mothers' Protective Carework." Journal of Family Issues 34, no. 6 (June 2013): 719-744.

Eugene, Toinette M. "'If You Get There Before I Do!': A Womanist Ethical Response to Sexual Violence and Abuse." In Perspectives on Womanist Theology, ed.Jacquelyn Grant. Atlanta: ITC Press, 1995.

Ewing, Doris, and Steven P. Schacht. "Sexuality: Toward a Race, Gender and Class Perspective." Race, Gender and Class 7, no. 1 (January 31, 2000): 7+.

Few, April L. "Integrating Black Consciousness and Critical Race Feminism Into Family Studies Research." Journal of Family Issues 28, no. 4 (April 2007): 452-473.

Finney, Carolyn. "Can't See the Black Folks for the Trees." In Voices of a New Generation: A Feminist Anthology, eds. Sara Weir and Constance Walker. Boston: Pearson, 2010.

French, Bryana. "More Than Jezebels and Freaks: Exploring How Black Girls Navigate Sexual Coercion and Sexual Scripts." Journal of African American Studies 17, no. 1 (March 2013): 35-50.

Gilkes, Cheryl Townsend. "Black Women's Work as Deviance: Social Sources of Racial Antagonism Within Contemporary Feminism". Working Paper No. 66. Wellesley, MA: Center for Research on Women, Wellesley College, 1979.

          . "From Slavery to Social Welfare: Racism and the Control of Black Women." In Class, Race, and Sex: The Dynamics of Control, ed. Amy Swerdlow and Hanna Lessinger. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1983.

          . "'If it Wasn't for the Women...': African American Women, Community Work, and Social Change." In Women of Color in U.S. Society, eds. Maxine Baca Zinn, and Bonnie Thornton Dill. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.

          . "The Margin as the Center of a Theory of History: African-American Women, Social Change, and the Sociology of W.E.B. Du Bois." In W.E.B. Du Bois and Culture: Philosophy, Politics, and Poetics, eds. Bernard W. Bell, Emily R. Grosholtz, and Stewart B. James. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Gilmore, Ruth Wilson. "Pierce the future for Hope: Mothers and Prisoners in the Post Keynesian California Landscape." In Global Lockdown: Race, Gender, and the Prison-Industrial Complex, ed. Julia Sudbury. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Gillespie, Marcia Ann. "The Myth of the Strong Black Woman." Essence August 1982, 58-60.

          . "What's Good for the Race." In Getting There: The Movement Toward Gender Equality, ed. Diana Wells. New York: Carroll Graf Publishers/Richard Gallen, 1994.

Gresham, Jewell Handy. "White Patriarchal Supremacy: The Politics of Family in America." The Nation 249, no. 4 (1989):116-122.

Gunning, Isabelle R. "A Story from Home: On Being a Black Lesbian Mother." In Critical Race Feminism: A Reader, ed. Adrien Katherine Wing. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Hairston, Kimetta R. "Dehumanization of the Black American Female: An American/Hawaiian Experience." Spaces for Difference: an Interdisciplinary Journal 1, no. 1 (2008): 65-85. Accessed 10 September 2010. http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/72m382mk.

Hall, Ruth L. "Voices of Black Feminist Leaders: Making Spaces for Ourselves." In Women and Leadership: Transforming Visions and Diverse Voices, eds. Jean Lau Chin, et al. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007.

Hampton, Robert L, Ricardo Carrillo and Joan Kim. "Domestic Violence in African American Communities." In Domestic Violence at the Margins: Readings on Race, Class, Gender and Culture, eds. Natalie J. Sokoloff, and Christina Pratt. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005.

Harnois, Catherine. "Different Paths to Different Feminisms: Bridging Multiracial Feminist Theory and Quantitative Sociological Gender Research." Gender & Society 19, no. 6 (December 2005): 809-828.

          . "Gendered Measures, Gendered Models: Toward an Intersectional Analysis of Interpersonal Racial Discrimination." Ethnic and Racial Studies 34, no. 6 (June 2010): 1006-1028.

Harris, Luke Charles. "The Challenge and Possibility for Black Males to Embrace Feminism." In Black Men on Race, Gender, and Sexuality: A Critical Reader, ed. Devon W. Carbado. New Yorkl: New York University Press, 1999.

Harris-Lacewell, Melissa Victoria"Policing Conservatives, Believing Feminists: Reactions to Unpopular Ideologies in Everyday Black Talk." In Barbershops, Bibles and BET: Everday Talk and Black Political Thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University press, 2004.

Height, Dorothy. "Family and Community: Self-Help-A Black Tradition." The Nation 249, no. 4 (1989): 136-137.

Hemmons, Willa Mae. Black Women in the New World Order. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996

          ."The Women's Liberation Movement: Understanding Black Women's Attitudes." In The Black Woman, ed., La Frances Rodgers-Rose. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1980.

Henriques, Zelma W. "African-American Women: The Oppressive Intersection of Gender, Race and Class." Women and Criminal Justice 7, no. 1 (1995): 67-80.

Hernton, Calvin. "Breaking Silences." In Traps: African American Men on Gender and Sexuality, eds. Rudolph P. Byrd and Beverly Guy-Sheftall. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Higginbotham, Elizabeth. "Black Professional Women: Job Ceilings and Employment Sectors." In Women of Color in U.S. Society, eds. Maxine Baca Zinn and Bonnie Thornton, 113-131. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.

          . "Two Representative Issues in Contemporary Sociological Work on Black Women." In All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women's Studies, eds. Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell Scott and Barbara Smith.Old Westbury, NY: The Feminist Press, 1982.

Higginbotham, Elizabeth, and Lynn Weber. "Moving Up With Kin and Community: Upward Social Mobility for Black and White Women." In Race, Class, and Gender: Common Bonds, Different Voices. eds. Esther Ngang-ling Chow, Doris Wilkinson, Maxine Baca Zinn.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996.

Hill, Shirley A. ":Gendered Violence, Racial Oppression and the Assault on Black Women.": In Black Intimacies: A Gendered Perspective on Families and Relationships. New York: Roman and Littlefield, 2005.

          . " In Search of the Village: Black Motherhood in Transition." In Black Intimacies: A Gendered Perspective on Families and Relationships. New York: Roman and Littlefield, 2005.

          . "Resolutions: Broadening the Vision of Liberation." In Black Intimacies: A Gendered Perspective on Families and Relationships. New York: Roman and Littlefield, 2005.

          . "Teaching and Doing Gender in African American Families." Sex Roles 47, no. 11-12 (December 2002): 493-506.

Holloway, Karla. Codes of Conduct: Race, Ethics and the Color of Our Character. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

Hunton, Mrs. Addie. "Negro Womanhood Defended." Voice of the Negro 1, no. 7 (July 1904): 280-282.

Jackson, Jacquelyne Johnson. "Black Women in a Racist Society." In Racism and Mental Health: Essays, ed. Charles V. Willie, Bernard M. Kramer, and Bertrand S. Brown. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973.

James, Stanlie M. "Mothering: A Possible Black Feminist Link to Social Transformation?" In Theorizing Black Feminisms: The Visionary Pragmatism of of Black Women, eds. Stanlie James and Abena P.A. Busia. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Jewell, K. Sue. From Mammy to Miss America and Beyond: Cultural Images & the Shaping of U.S. Social Policy. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Johnson-Bailey, Juanita. "Everyday Perspectives on Feminism: African American Women Speak Out." Race, Gender & Class 10, no. 3 (2003): 82+.

Jones, Charisse and Kumea Shorter-Gooden. Shifting: The Double Lives of Black Women in America. New York: HarperCollins, 2003.

Jordan Emma Coleman. "Race, Gender, and Social Class in the Thomas Sexual Harassment Hearings: The Hidden Fault Lines in Political Discourse." In Critical Race Feminism: A Reader, ed. Adrien Katherine Wing. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Joseph, Gloria I., and Jill Lewis. Common Differences: Conflicts in Black and White Feminist Perspectives. New York: Anchor Press, 1981.

Kaplan, Elaine Bell. Not Our Kind of Girl: Unraveling the Myths of Black Teenage Motherhood. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

King, Deborah. "Unraveling Fabric, Missing the Beat: Class and Gender in Afro-American Social Issues." The Black Scholar 22, no. 3 (1992): 36-44.

King, Toni C., and S. Alease Ferguson, eds. Black Womanist Leadership: Tracing the Motherline, New York: SUNY Press, 2011.

Ladner, Joyce A. "Black Women as Doers: The Social Responsibility of Black Women. Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 6, no. 1 (1989): 87-88.

Lengerman, Patricia Madoo, and Jill Niebrugge Brantley. Lifting the Veil of Privilege: Race, Gender, and Class in the Black Feminist Sociology of Anna Julia Cooper (1858-1964) and Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862-1931). Association Paper. American Sociological Association, 1997.

Lewis, Diane K. "Black Women Offenders and Criminal Justice: Some Theoretical Considerations." In Comparing Female and Male Offenders, ed. Marguerite Q. Warren. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1981.

          . A Response to Inequality: Black Women, Racism, and Sexism. "Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 3, no. 2 (1977): 339-361.

Long, Gary L. "To Be Black Male, and 'Feminist': Making Womanist Space for Black Men." International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 17, nos. 1-2 (1997): 35-61.

Madhubuti, Haki R. "On Becoming Anti-Rapist." In Traps: African American Men on Gender and Sexuality, eds. Rudolph P. Byrd and Beverly Guy-Sheftall. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Magubane, Zine. "Feminism, Poststructuralism, Race and the Curious Theoretical Odyssey of the 'Hottentot Venus'." Gender & society 15, no. 6 (December 2001): 816-834.

Malson, Michelene Ridley. "Black Women's Sex Roles: The Social Context For a New Ideology." Journal of Social Issues 39 (1983): 101-113.

Malson, Michelene Ridley, et al. eds. Black Women in America: Social Science Perspectives.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

McDonald, Katrina Bell. Embracing Sisterhood: Class, Identity, and Contemporary Black Women. New York: Roman and Littlefield Publishers, 2007.

McDougald, Elise Johnson. "The Double Task: The Struggle of Negro Women for Sex and Race Emancipation." In Words of Fire: An Anthology of African-American Feminist Thought, ed. Beverly Guy-Sheftall, 1995. Originally published in Survey Graphic 6, no. 6 (March 1925), 689-694.

McIntosh, Peggy. "White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Women's Studies." Working Paper No. 189. Wellesley Center for Research on Women, 1988.

McAdoo, Harriette Pipes. "The Storm is Passing Over: Marginalized African-American Women." In Women at the Margins: Neglect, Punishment, and Resistance. New York: Haworth Press, 2002.

McDonald, Trevy. Nature of a Sistah: Black Women's Lived Experiences in Contemporary Culture. North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press, 1998.

McIntyre, Alice. "'You should Watch at Least One Show of Jerry Springer." Feminism & Psychology 11, no. 2 (2001): 157-161.

Messner, Michael A.: "White Men Misbehaving: Feminism, Afrocentrism, and the Promise of a Critical Standpoint." Social Studies Review 33, no. 2 (1994): 36-41.

McKay, Nellie Y. "Acknowledging Differences: Can Women Find Unity Through Diversity." In Theorizing Black Feminisms: The Visionary Pragmatism of Black Women, eds. Stanlie M. James and Abena P.A. Busia. New York: Routledge, 1993. Mitchell, Jacquelyn. "Three Women: Cultural Rules and Leadership Roles in the Black Community." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 5, no. 2 (1988): 9-19.

Miller-Young, Mireille. "Putting Hypersexiality to Work: Black Women and Illicit Eroticism in Pornography." Sexualities 13, no. 2 (2010): 219-235.

Moore-Foster, W.J. Musa. "Up From Brutality: Freeing Black Communities From Sexual Violence. In Transforming a Rape Culture, eds. Emilie Buchwald, Pamela Fletcher, and Martha Roth. Minneapolis, MN: Milkweed Editions, 1993.

Morgan, Mary Y. "The Process of Critical Science in Exploring Racism and Sexism with Black College Women." In Women's Studies in Transition: The Pursuit of Interdisciplinarity, Kate Conway-Turner, Suzanne Cherrin, Jessica Schiffman, and Kathleen Doherty Turkel. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1998.

Mullings, Leith. "Images, Ideology and Women of Color." In Feminist Communication Theory: Selections in Context, eds. Lana F. Rakow and Laura A. Wackwitz. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2004; Originally published in Women of Color in U.S. Society, eds Maxine Baca Zinn and Bonnie Dill Thornton. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994).

Nadasen, Premilla. "Expanding the Boundaries of the Women's Movement: Black Feminism and the Struggle for Welfare Rights." Feminist Studies 28, no. 2 (Summer 2002): 271-301. Reprinted in No Permanent Waves: Recasting Histories of U.S. Feminism, ed Nancy A. Hewitt (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Universtiy Press, 2010).

          . "From Widow to "Welfare Queen": Welfare and Politics of Race." Black Women, Gender & Families 1, no. 2 (Fall 2007).

          . Welfare Warriors: The Welfare Rights Movement in the United States. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Nash, Jennifer. "Practicing Love: Black Feminism, Love-Politics, and Post Interectionality." Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism, 11, no 2 (2013): 1-24.

          . "Strange Bedfellows: Black Feminism and Antipornography Feminism." Social Text 26, no. 4 (Winter 2008): 51-76.

Nelson, Jill. "Displaced Homemaker: Who's Displacing Whom." Encore 8 (November 1979): 18-19.

Ngwainmbi, Jilly M. "Feminism, Feminist Scholarship, and Social Integration of Women: The Struggle for African-American Women." Jounral of International Women's Studies 5, no. 5 (June 2004): 93-104.

Okazawa-Rey, Margo, Tracy Robinson, and Jamie Victoria Ward. "Black Women and the Politics of Skin Color and Hair." Women's Studies Quarterly 15, nos. 1-2 (1987): 13-14.

Okolosie, Lola. "Beyond 'Talkiing' and 'Owning" Intersectionality." Feminist Review 108, no. 1 (November 2014): 90-96.

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          . "Gender in Black." The Rising Song of African American Women. New York: Routledge, 1994.

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