borderspacer gutter spacer menu spacer gutter spacer body spacer gutter spacer border spacer
border spacer gutter spacer menu spacer gutter spacer body spacer gutter spacer border spacer
border spacer gutter spacer Black American Feminisms header gutter spacer border spacer
border spacer gutter spacer menu spacer gutter spacer body spacer gutter spacer border spacer
border spacer gutter spacer
menu border spacer menu gutter spacer menu links text spacer menu gutter spacer menu border spacer
menu border spacer menu gutter spacer menu border spacer
menu border spacer menu gutter spacer INTRODUCTION
- Introduction
- Purpose
- Description & Scope
- Locating Resources

ARTS & HUMANITIES
- Art
- Cultural Criticism
- Media, Film & TV
- Language &
  Literature

- Lesbian
  Subjectivities

- Music
- Religion &
  Philosophy


SOCIAL SCIENCES
- Anthropology
- Economics
- History
- Politics
- Legal Theory
- Psychology
- Sociology

EDUCATION
- The Academy
- History of Education
- Pedagogy &
  Philosophy


HEALTH, MEDICINE & SCIENCE
- Health and Healing
- Science, Medicine,
  & Technology


(Auto)Biography, Memoirs, Personal Narratives

Interviews

Speeches

Multidisciplinary Anthologies

Periodicals: Special Issues

Web Sites

Submit Reference

Home
menu gutter spacer menu border spacer
menu border spacer menu gutter spacer menu border spacer
menu border spacer
gutter spacer
A Multidisciplinary Bibliography
The Arts and Humanities
Language & Literature
Movin' On by Irmagean If there is a single distinguishing feature of the literature of black women--and this accounts for their lack of recognition--it is this: their writing is about black women; it takes the trouble to record the thoughts, words, feelings, and deeds of black women, experiences that make the realities of being black in America look very different from what men have written. There are no women in this tradition hibernating in dark holes contemplating their invisibility; there are no women dismembering bodies or crushing skulls of either women or men; and few, if any, women in the literature of black women succeed in heroic quests without the support of other women or men in their communities.
Mary Helen Washington

Abramson, Doris E. "Angelina Weld Grimke, Mary T. Burrill, Georgia Douglas Johnson, and Marita O'Bonner: An Analysis of Their Plays." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 2, no. 1 (1985): 9-13.

Acampora, Christa Davis. "'Authorizing Desire: Erotic Poetics and the Aesthesis of Freedom in Morrison and Shange." In Umaking Race, Remaking Soul: Transformative Aesthetics and the Practice of Freedom, eds. Christa Davis Acampora and Angela L. Cotton. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007.

Accomando, Christina. "The Regulations of Robbers": Legal Fictions of Slavery and Resistance. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2001.

Adair, Zakiya. "Respectable Vamp: A Black Feminist Analysis of Florence Mills' Career in Early Vaudeville Theater." Journal of African American Studies 17, no. 1 (March 2013): 7-21>

Adeleke, Joseph A. "Feminism, Black Feminism, and the Dialectics of Womanism." In Feminism and Black Women's Creative Writing: Theory Practice, and Criticism, ed., Aduke Adebayo. Ibadan, Nigeria: AMD, 1996.

Allan, Tuzyline Jita. Womanist and Feminist Aesthetics: A Comparative Review. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1995.

Alexander, Elizabeth. "The Anxiety of Authority." Women's Review of Books. February 1994, 7-9.

          . Black Interior: Essays Saint Paul, MN: Graywolf Press, 2004.

          . "'Coming Out Blackened and Whole': Fragmentation and Reintergration in Audre Lorde's Zami and the Cancer Journals." American Literary History 6, no. 4 (1994): 695-715. Reprinted in Skin Deep, Spirit Strong: The Black Female Body in American Culture, ed. Kimeberley Wallace Sanders. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002).

          . "An Interview with Elizabeth Alexander." Interview by Christine Phillip. Callaloo 19, no. 2 (Spring 1996): 493-507.

          . "Life in the Jet' Stream: Reading Black America's Bible." Voice Literary Supplement March 1994, 23-24.

          . "Memory, Community, Voice." Callaloo 17, no. 2 (1994): 408-421.

          . "'We Must Be about Our Father's Business': Anna Julia Cooper and the In-Corporation of the Nineteenth-Century African American Woman Intellectual." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 20, no. 21 (1995): 336-357.

Alexander, Jacqui. "Remembering This Bridge, Remembering Ourselves: Yearning Memory, and Desire." In This Bridge We Call Home: Radical Visions for Transformation, eds. Gloria E. Anzaldua and Analouise Keating. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Allen, Carol. Black Women Intellectuals: Strategies of Nation, Family, and Neighborhood in the Works of Pauline Hopkins, Jessie Fauset, and Marita Bonner. New York: Garland, 1998.

Anderson, Lisa M. Black Feminism in Contemporary Drama. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008.

Athey, Stephanie. "Reproductive Health, Race and Technology: Political Fictions and Black Feminist Critiques 1970s-1990s." Sage Race Relations Abstracts 22, no. 1 (February 1997): 3-27.

Athey, Stephanie, ed. Sharpened Edge: Women of Color, Resistance, and Writing. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

Awkward, Michael. "A Black Man's Place(s) in Black Feminist Criticism." In Who Can Speak? Authority and Critical Identity, eds. Judith Roof, and Robyn Wiegman. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995; Reprinted in The Black Feminist Reader, eds. Joy James and Tracey Denean Sharpley-Whiting. (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000); Reprinted in Black Men on Race, Gender, and Sexuality: A Critical Reader, ed. Devon W. Carbado, (New York: New York Universtiy Press, 1999); Reprinted in Traps: African American Men on Gender and Sexuality, eds. Rudolph P. Byrd and Beverly Guy-Sheftall, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001).

          . "'The Inaudible Voice of it All': Session, Voice, and Action in Their Eyes Were Watching God." In Black Feminist Criticism and Critical Theory, eds. Joe Weixlmann and Houston A. Baker Jr. Greenwood, FL: Penkevill, 1988.

          . Negotiating Difference: Race, Gender, and the Politics of Postionality.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

          . "Race, Gender, and the Politics of Reading." Black American Literature Forum 22, no. 1 (1988): 5-27.

          . "'Unruly and Let Loose': Myth, Ideology, and Gender in Song of Solomon." Callaloo 13, no. 3 (1990): 482-.

Baker, Houston A. Workings of the Spirit: The Poetics of Afro-American Women's Writings. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Banyiwa-Horne, N. "The Scary Face of the Self: An Analysis of the character of Sula in Toni Morrison's Sula." Sage: A Scholarly Journal of Black Women 2, no. 1 (1985): 28-31.

Bassard, Katherine Clay. "Gender and Genre: Black Women's Autobiography and the Ideology of Literacy." African American Review 26, no. 1 (1992): 119-29.

Bassard, Katherine Clay and Katy L. Chiles. "Spiritual Interrogations: Culture, Gender, and Community in Early African American women's Writings." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 21, no. 2 (Fall 2002): 411+.

Batiste, Stephanie. "Hip-Hop and This One-Woman Show." In Home Girls Make Some Noise: Hip Hop Feminsm Antology, eds. Gwendolyn Pough et al. Mira Loma, CA: Parker Publishing, 2007.

Batker, Carol. "'Love Me Like I Like to Be.': The Sexual Politics of Hurston's 'Their Eyes Were Watching God', the Classic Blues and the Black Women's Club Movement." African American Review 32, no. 2 (Summer 1998): 199+.

Beaulieu, Elizabeth Ann. Black Women Writers and the American Neo-Slave Narrative: Femininity Unfettered. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Bell, Roseann P., Bettye J. Parker, and Beverly Guy-Sheftall, eds. Sturdy Black Bridges: Visions of Black Women in Literature. New York: Doubleday, 1979.

Bell-Scott, Patricia, et al. Double Stitch: Black Women Write About Mothers and Daughters.Boston: Beacon Press, 1991

Bennett, Michael and Vanessa D. Dickerson, eds. Recovering the Black Female Body: Self Representations by African American Women. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001.

Berlant, Lauren. "Cultural Struggle and Literary History: African-American Women's Writing." Modern Philogy 88, no. 1 (August 1990): 57-65.

          .The Female Woman: Fanny Fern and the Form of Sentiment," In the Culture of Sentiment: Race, Gender, and Sentimentality in Nineteenth Century America, ed. Shirley Samuels. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

          ."The Queen of America Goes to Washington City: Harriet Jacobs, Frances Harper, Anita Hill." In Subjects and Citizens: Nation, Race, and Gender From "Oroonoko" to Anita Hill, eds. Michael Moon, and Cathy Davidson. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995.

          . "Race , Gender, and Nation in The Color Purple." In Alice Walker: Critical Perspectives Past and Present, eds. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and K.A. Appiah. New York: Amistad Press, 1993.

Bethel, Lorraine. "'This Infinity of Conscious Pain': Zora Neale Hurston and the Black Female Literary Tradition." In All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women's Studies, eds. Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell Scott, and Barbara Smith. Old Westbury, NY: The Feminist Press, 1982.

Blackburn, Regina. "In Search of the Black Female Self: African-American Women's Autobiographies and Ethnicity. "In Women's Autobiography: Essays in Criticism, ed. Estelle C. Jelinek. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980.

Blanchard, Mary Loving. "Poets, Lovers, and the Master's Tools: A Conversation With Audre Lorde." In This Bridge We Call Home: Radical Visions for Transformation, eds. Gloria E. Anzaldua and Analouise Keating. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Booth, Alison. "Feminist Criticism at the English Track Meet." Callaloo 17, no. 2 (1994): 1559-1563.

Bowen, Angela. "Diving into Audre Lorde's 'Blackstudies'." Meridians: Feminism, Race, and Transnationalism, 4, no. 1 (2003): 109-129.

Bowles, Gloria, M. Giulia Fabi, and Arlene R. Keizer, eds. New Black Feminist Criticism, 1985-2000. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007.

Boyd, Melba Joyce. Discarded Legacy:Politics and Poetics in the Life of Frances E. W. Harper, 1825-1911. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1994.

Braxton, JoAnne. Black Women Writing Autobiography: A Tradition Within a Tradition.Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.

          . "Ancestral Presence: The Outraged Mother Figure in Contemporary Afra-American Writing." The Barnard Occasional Papers on Women's Issues 3, no. 2 (1988).

Braxton, Joanne M, and Andree Nicola McLaughlin, eds. Wild Women in the Whirlwind. Afra-American Culture and the Contemporary Literary Renaissance. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

Broeck, Sabine. "Enslavement as Regime of Western Modernity: Re-reading Gender Studies Epistemology Through Black Feminist Critique." Gender Forum: An Internet Journal of Gender Studies 22 (2008). Accessed 6 October 2010 http://www.genderforum.org/index.php?id=172.

Brown, Georgia W. "Oral History: Louisana Black Women's Memoirs." In Oral Narrative Research With Black Women, ed. Kim Marie Vaz. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997.

Browne, Joy Elizabeth. "Theology and Literary Criticism in the Womanist Mode, An Interdisciplinary (And Necessary) Conversation." In Perspectives on Womanist Theology, ed. Jacquelyn Grant. Atlanta: ITC Press, 1995.

          . "Words Whispered Over Voids: A Context for Black Women's Rebellious Voices in the Novel of the African Diaspora." In Black Feminist Criticism and Critical Theory, eds. Joe Weixlmann, and Houston A. Baker, Jr. Greenwood, FL: Penkevill, 1988.

Busia, P.A. Abena. "Performance, Transcription and the Languages of Self: Interrogating Identity as a 'Post-Colonial' Poet." In Theorizing Black Feminisms: The Visionary Pragmatism of Black Women, eds. Stanlie M. James and Abena P.A. Busia.New York: Routledge, 1993.

Byrd, Rudolph P., Johnnetta Betsch Cole, and Beverly Guy-Sheftall. I am Your Sister: Collected and Unpublished Writings of Audre Lorde. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Canon, Katie G. Katie's Cannon: Womanism and the Soul of the Black community. New York: Continuum, 1996.

Carby, Hazel V. "'Hear My Voice, Ye Careless Daughters': Narrative of Slave and Free Women Before Emancipation." In African American Autobiography: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. William L. Andrews. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993.

          . "It Jus Be's Dat Way Sometime: The Sexual Politics of Women's Blues." Radical America 20, no. 4 (1986). Reprinted in Feminisms: An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism, eds. R.R. Warhol, and D.P. Herndl (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992).

          . "'On the Threshold of Woman's Era': Lynching, Empire, and Sexuality in Black Feminist Theory." Critical Inquiry 12, no 1 (1985): 262-77.

          . "The Politics of Fiction, Anthropology, and the Folk: Zora Neale Hurston in African American Culture." In History and Memory in African American Culture, eds. Genevieve Fabre, and Robert O'Meally.New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Originally published in New Essays on Their Eyes Were Watching God, ed. Michael Awkward (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

          . Reconstructing Womanhood: The Emergence of the Afro-American Woman Novelist. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

          . "Reinventing History/Imagining the Future." In Cultures in Babylon: Black Britain and African America. New York: Verso, 1999.

Chang, Robert s. and Adrienne D. Davis. "The Adventure(s) of Blackness in Western Culture: An Epistolary Exchange on Old and New Identity Wars." U.C. Davis Law Review 39 (2005-2006): 1189-1210.

Chay, Deborah. "Rereading Barbara Smith: Black Feminist Criticism and the Category of Experience." New Literary History: A Journal of Theory and Interpretation 24, no. 3 (1993): 635-52.

Christian, Barbara. Alice Walker's The Color Purple and Other Works: A Critical Commentary. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.

          . "Being the Subject and the Object: Reading African-American Women's Novels." In Changing Subjects: The Making of Feminist Literary Criticism, eds. Gayle Greene, and Coppelia Kahn. London: Routledge, 1993.

          . "Beloved, She's Ours." Narrative 5, no. 1 36-49.

          . Black Feminist Criticism: Perspectives on Black Women Writers. New York: Pergamon, 1985.

          . "Black Women Artist as Wayward." In Alice Walker, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1989.

          . Black Women Novelists: The Development of a Tradition, 1892-1976.Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980.

          . "But What Do We Think We're Doing Anyway: The State of Black Feminist Criticism(s) or My Version of a Little Bit of History. In Changing Our Own Words: Essays on Criticism, Theory, and Writing by Black Women, ed. Cheryl A. Wall. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989.Reprinted in Within the Circle: An Anthology of African American Criticism from the Harlem Renaissance to the Present, ed. Angelyn Mitchell. (Durham: Duke University Press, 1994).

          . "A Checkered Career." Women's Review of Books July 1992, 18-19.

          . "Community and Nature: The Novels of Toni Morrison." Journal of Ethnic Studies 7, no. 4 (1980): 65-78.

          . "Contrary Women of Alice Walker: A Study of In Love and Trouble." The Black Scholar 12, no. 2 (March-April 1981): 21-30.

          . "Fixing Methodologies: Beloved." In Female Subjects in Black and White: Race, Psychoanalysis, Feminism, ed. Elizabeth Abel, Barbara Christian, and Helene Moglen. Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley, 1997. Originally Published in Cultural Critique 24 (Spring 1993).

          . "The Highs and Lows of Black Feminist Criticism." In Feminisms: An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism, eds. Robyn R. Warhol, and Diane Price Herndl. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997.

          . "Layered Rhythms: Virginia Woolf and Toni Morrison." In Toni Morrison: Critical Theoretical Approaches, ed. Nancy J. Peterson. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. Originally published in Virginia Woolf: Emerging Perspectives, eds. Mark, and Vara Neverow (New York: Pace University Press, 1994.

          . "Naylor's Geography: Community, Class and Patriarchy in The Women of Brewster Place and Linden Hills. "In Gloria Naylor: Critical Perspectives Past and Present, eds. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and K.A. Appiah. New York: Amistad Press, 1993.

          . New Black Feminist Criticism, 1985-2000, eds. Bowles, Gloria, M. Giulia Fabi, and Arlene R. Keizer. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007.

          . "No More Buried Lives: The Theme of Lesbianism in Lorde, Naylor, Shange, Walker." Feminist Issues 5, no. 1 (1985).

          . "Novels for Everyday Use." In Alice Walker: Critical Perspectives Past and Present, eds. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and K.A. Appiah. New York: Amistad, 1993.

          . "Nuance and the Novella: A Study of Gwendolyn Brooks Maud Martha. "In A Life Distilled: Gwendolyn Brooks, Her Poetry and Fiction, eds. Maria K. Mootry, and Gary Smith.Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.

          . "The Race for Theory." Cultural Critique 6 (Spring 1987): 51-63. Reprinted in Feminist Studies 14, no. 1 (1988), 67-79. Reprinted Changing Our Own Words: Essays on Criticism, Theory, Writing by Black Women, ed. Cheryl A. Wall, (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989). Reprinted in The Nature and Context of Minority Discourse, eds. Abdul R. JanMohamed, and David Lloyd, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).Reprinted in Within the Circle: An Anthology of African American Literary Criticism from the Harlem Renaissance to the Present, (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994); Post-Colonial Studies Reader, eds. Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin, (London: Routledge, 1995). Reprinted in Contemporary Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader, ed. Padmini Mongia, (London: Arnold, 1996).Reprinted in Radically Speaking: Reclaiming Feminism, eds. Diane Bell, and Renate Klein, (North Melbourne, Australia: Spinifex Press, 1996). Reprinted in Women, Class, and the Feminist Imagiantion: A Socialist-Feminist Reader, ed. (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990). Reprinted in Gender and Theory: Dialogues on Feminist Criticism, ed. Linda Kaufman (Oxford, UK: New York: Basil Blackwell: 1989).Reprinted in The Black Feminist Reader, eds. Joy James and Tracey Denean Sharpley-Whiting. (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000). Reprinted in Making Face, Making Soul, Haciendo Caras:Creative and Critical Perspectives by Feminists of Color, ed. Gloria Anzaldua. (San Francisco, CA: Aunt Lute Books, 1990).

          . "A Rough Terrain: The Case of Shaping an Anthology of Caribbean Women Writers." In The Ethnic Canon: Histories, Institutions, and Interventions, ed. David Palumbo Liu. Minneapolis: University Of Minnesota Press, 1995.

          . "Somebody Forgot to Tell Somebody Something, African American Women's Historical Novels." The Barnard Occasional Papers on Women's Issues 3, no. 2 (1988). Reprinted in Feminism and 'Race', ed. Kum Kum Bhavnani. (New York: Oxford Universtiy Press, 2001).

          . "Shadows Uplifted." Feminist Criticism and Social Change: Sex, Class, and Race in Literature and Culture, eds. Judith Newton and Deborah Rosenfelt. New York: Methuen Press, 1985.

          . "Trajectories of Self-Definition: Placing Contemporary Afro-American Women's Fiction." In Conjuring: Black Women, Fiction, and Literary Tradition, eds. Marjorie Pryse and Hortense J. Spillers.Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

          . "We Are the Ones We Have Been Waiting For: Political Content in Alice Walker's Novels." In Radical Voices: A Decade of Feminist Resistance From theWomen's Studies Interantional Forum, ed. Renata D. Klein and Deborah Lynn Steinberg. New York: Pergamon Press, 1989.

          . "What Celie Knows That You Should Know." In Anatomy of Racism, ed. David Theo Goldberg. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990.

Christian, Barbara, et al. "Conference Call." Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 2, no. 3 (1990).

Christian, Barbara (reply), and Gwin Minrose. "A Theory of Black Women's Text and White Women's Readings: Or,...the Necessity of Being Other." NWSA Journal 1, no. 1 (1988): 21-36.

Clarke, Cheryl. "Black Feminist Communalism: Ntozake Shange's for Colored Girls who Have Considered Suicide/when the Rainbow is Enuf". In After Mecca: Women Poets and the Black Arts Movement. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005.

          . "Knowing the Danger and Going There Anyway." Sojourner: The Women's Forum 16, no. 1 (1990): 14-15.

          . "Transferences and Confluences: Black Arts and Black Lesbian Feminism in Audre Lordes The Black Unicorn. In After Mecca: Women Poets and the Black Arts Movement. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005.

Clarke, Cheryl, Jewell Gomez, Evelyn Hammonds, Bonnie Johnson, and Linda Powell. "Conversations and Questions: Black Women on Black Women Writers: Conversations and Questons." Conditions Nine 3, no. 3 (1983): 88+.

Cleaver, Kathleen Neal. "Sister Act." Transition 60 (1993): 84-100.

Cliff, Michele. Claiming an Identity They Taught Me to Despise. Watertown, MA: Persephone Press, 1982.

Cooper, Brittney. "'Maybe I'll Be a Poet Rapper': Hip-Hop Feminnism and Literary Aesthetics in Push." African American Review 46, no. 1 (Spring 2013): 55-69.
.
Cotera, Maria Eugenia. "'De nigger woman is de mule uh de world': Storytelling and the Black Feminist Tradition." In Native Speakers: Ella Deloria, Zora Neale Hurston, Jovita Gaonzalez, and the Poetics of Culture. Austin: Univestiy of Texas Press, 2008.

Comfort, Juanita Rogers. "Becoming a Writerly Self: College Writers Engaging Black Feminist Essays."Journal of the Conference on College Composition and Communication 51, no. 4 (June 2000): 540-559.

Davies, Carol Boyce. Black Women, Writing and Identity: Migrations of the Subject. New York: Routledge, 1996.

          . "Black Woman's Journey Into Self: A Womanist Reading of Paule Marshall's Praisesong for the Widow." Matatu 1, no. 1 (1987): 19-34.

          . "Mothering and Healing in Recent Black Women's Fiction." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 2, no. 1 (1985): 41-43.

          . "Wrapping One's Self in Mother's Akatado-Cloths: Mother-Daughter Relationships in the Words of African Women Writers." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 4, no. 2 (1987): 11-19.

Davis, Cynthia. "'Speaking the Bodies Pain'.Harriet Wilson's Our Nig." African American Review 27, no. 3 (1993): 391-404.

Davis, Kathleen. "Zora Neale Hurston's Poetics of Embalment: Articulating the Rage of Black Women and Narrative Self Defense." African American Review 26, no. 1 (1992): 147-159.

Davis, Olga Idriss. "A Black Woman as Rhetorical Critic: Validating Self and Violating the Space of Otherness." In Women's Studies in Communication 21, no. 1 (1998)77-89.

Davis, Thadious. "Alice Walker's Celebration of Self in Southern Generations." In Alice Walker "Everyday Use," ed. Barbara Christian. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994.Originally published in The Southern Quarterly 21 no. 4 (1981), 39-53.

          . "Jason Compson's Place: A Reassessment." Southern Studies 20, no. 2 (1981):137-150.

          . "The Other Family and Luster in The Sound and the Fury." CLA Journal 20 (1976): 245-261.

          . "Poetry as Preface to Fiction: Alice Walker's Recurrent Apprenticeship." Mississippi Quarterly 44, no. 2 (1991): 133-142.Reprinted in Alice Walker: Critical Perspectives Past and Present, eds. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and K.A. Appiah. New York: Amistad Press, 1993.

          . "Reading the Woman's Face in Langston Hughes and Roy DeCarava's Sweet Flypaper of Life." In Langston Hughes: The Man, His Art, and His Continuing Influence, ed. James C. Trotman. New York: Garland, 1995. Originally published in The Langston Hughes Review 12, no. 1 (1993): 22-28.

          . "Women's Art and Authorship in the Southern Region:Connections." In The Female Tradition in Southern Literature, ed. Carol S. Manning. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Delrosso, Jeana. "Catholicism's Other(ed) Holy Trinity: Race, Class, and Gender in Black Catholic Girl School Narratives". Signs 12, no. 1 (Spring 200): 24-43.

Dickerson, Glenda. "The Cult of True Womanhood: Toward A Womanist Attitude in African-American Theatre." In Performing Feminisms: Feminist Critical Theory and Theatre, ed. Sue-Ellen Case. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.

Doyle, Laura. Bodering on the Body: The Racial Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Dubey, Madhu. Black Women Novelists and the National Aesthetic. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

          . "Gayl Jones and the Matrilineal Metaphor of Tradition." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 20. 21 (1995): 245-267.

duCille, Ann. "Blues Notes on Black Sexuality: Sex and the Texts of Jessie Fauset and Nella Larsen." Journal of the History of Sexuality 3, no. 3 (1993): 418-444.

          . The Coupling Convention: Sex Text, and Tradition in Black Women's Fiction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

          . "The Occult of True Black Womanhood: Critical Demeanor and Black Feminist Studies." In Female Subjects in Black and White: Race, Psychoanalysis, Feminism, eds. Elizabeth Abel, Barbara Christian, and Helene Moglen. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. Originally published in Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 19, no. 3 (1994): 591-629. Reprinted in The Second Signs Reader, eds. Ruth-Ellen B. Joeres and Barbara Laslett. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). Reprinted in Feminism and 'Race', ed. Kum Kum Bhavnani. (New York: Oxford Universtiy Press, 2001).

          . "Phallus(ies) of Interpretation: Toward Engendering the Black Critical 'I'." Callaloo 16, no. 3 (1993): 559+.

          . "Postcoloniality and Afrocentricity: Discourse and Dat Course." In Black Columbiad: Defining Moments in African American Literature and Culture, eds Werner Sollors and Maria Deidrich. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994.

          . "The Short Happy Life of Black Feminist Theory." differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 21, no. 1 (2010): 32-47.

Elie, Nada. Trances, Dances, and Vociferations. New York: Garland Publishing, 2001.

Estes-Hicks, Onita. "Natalie Mann: Jean Toomer's Feminist Drama of Ideas." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 5, no. 1 (1988): 21-24.

Evans, Mari, ed. Black Women Writers (1950-1980): A Critical Evaluation. New York: Anchor, 1984.

Exum, Pat Crutchfield, ed. Keeping the Faith. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1974.

Ferguson, Roderick A. "Something Else to be: Sula, the Moynihan Report, and the Negations of Black Lesbian Feminism." In Aberrations in Black: Toward a Queer of Color Critique. Minnepolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004.

Ferreira, Patricia. "What's Wrong with Miss Anne: Whiteness, Women, and Power in Meridian and Dessa Rose." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 8, no. 1 (1991): 15-20.

Ford, Charita M. "Flowering a Feminist Garden: The Writings and Poetry of Anne Spencer." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 5, no. 1 (1988): 7+.

Fisher Peters, Pearlie Mae. The Assertive Woman in Zora Neale Hurston's Fiction, Folklore, and Drama. New York: Garland Publishing, 1998.

Foreman, P. Gabrielle. "The Spoken and Silenced in Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl and Our Nig." Callaloo 13, no. 2 (1990): 313-324.

Foster, Frances Smith. "Between the Sides: Afro-American Women Writers as Mediators." Nineteenth Century Studies 3 (1989): 53-64.

          . Literary Production by African American Women, 1746-1892. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

          . "Neither Auction Block nor Pedestal: The Life and Religious Experience of Jarena Lee, a Coloured Lady." New York Literary Forum 12-13 (1984): 143-169.

          . "Octavia Butler's Black Female Future Fiction." Extrapolation 23, no. 1 (1982): 37-49.

          . "Parents and Children in Autobiography by Southern Afro-American Women." In Home Ground: Southern Autobiography, ed. Bill J. Berry. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1991.

Francis, Terri. "I and I: Elizabeth Alexander's Collective First-Person Voice, the Witness and Lure of Amnesia" Gender Forum: An Internet Journal of Gender Studies 22 (2008). Accessed 25 October 2010.

Freeman, Alma. "Zora Neale Hurston and Alice Walker: A Spiritual Kinship." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 2, no. 1 (1985): 37-40.

Frost, Elisabeth A. ":'a fo / real / revolu / shun': Sonia Sanchez and the Black Arts Movement." In The Feminist Avant-Garde in American Poetry. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2003.

Fulton, DoVeanna S. Speaking Truth to Power: Black Feminist Orality in Women's Narratives of Slavery. New York: State University of New York Press, 2006.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., ed. Reading Black, Reading Feminist: A Critical Anthology. New York: Meridian, 1990.

Gerund, Katharina. "Sisterly (Inter)Actions: Audre Lorde and the Development of Afro-German Women's Communities" Gender Forum: An Internet Journal of Gender Studies 22 (2008). Accessed 25 October 2010.

Gilkes, Cheryl Townsend. "'A Conscious Connection to All That is': The Color Purple as Subversive and Critical Ethnography." In Embracing the Spirit: Womanist Perspectives on Hope, Salvation, and Transformation, ed. Emilie Maureen Townes. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1997.

Gomez, Jewell. "A Cultural Legacy Denied and Discovered: Black Lesbians in Fiction by Women." In Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology, ed. Barbara Smith. New York: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, 1983.

          . "It's in Her Blood: Jewelle Gomez Talks About Activism, Feminist Playwriting, and a Kinder Gentler Vampirism." Iris: A Journal About Women, 49 (Fall-Winter 2004): 18-22.

          . "Speculative Fiction and Black Lesbians." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 18, no. 4 (1993): 948-55.

          . "To Grandmother's House I Go." Journal of Lesbian Studies 4, no. 4 (2000): 71-77.

Goswami, Namita. "The Second Sex: Philosophy, Postcolonialism, African American Feminism, and the Race for Theory." Angelaki: Journal of Theoretical Humanities 13, no. 32 (August 2008): 73-91.

Grasso, Linda M. "The Text as Courtroom: Judgement, Vengeance, and Punishment in Harriet Wilson's Our Nig. In The Artistry of Anger: Black and White Women's Literature in America, 1820-1860. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Grayson, Sandra M. "Black Women and American Slavery: Forms of Resistance." In Sharpened Edge: Women of Color, Resistance and Writing, ed. Stephanie Athey. Westport, CT: Prager, 2003.

Griffin, Farah Jasmine. "Textual Healing: Claiming Black Women's Bodies, the Erotic and Resistance in Contemporary Novels of Slavery." Callaloo 19, no. 2 (1996): 519-536.

          . "That the Mothers May Soar and the Daughters May Know Their Names: A Retrospective of Black Feminist Literary Criticism." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 32, no. 2 (2007): 483-507.

Gumbs, Alexis Pauline. "Seek the Roots: An Immersive and Interactive Archive of Black Feminist Practice." Feminist Collections 32, no. 1 (Winter 2011): 17-20. Accessed 6 September 2011.

          . "'We Can Learn to Mother Ourselves': A Dialogically Produced Audience and Black Feminist Publishing 1979 to 'Present'." Gender Forum: An Internet Journal of Gender Studies 22 (2008). Accessed 25 October 2010.

Guy-Sheftall, Beverly. "Commitment: Toni Cade Bambara Speaks." In Sturdy Black Bridges: Visions of Black Women in Literature, eds. Roseann P. Bell, Bettye J. Parker, and Beverly Guy-Sheftall.Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1979.

          . "The Women of Bronzeville." In Sturdy Black Bridges: Visions of Black Women in Literature, eds. Roseann P. Bell, Bettye J. Parker, and Beverly Guy-Sheftall. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1979.

Gwin, Minrose C. "Green-Eyed Monsters of the Slavocracy: Jealous Mistresses in Two Slave Narratives." In Conjuring: Black Women, Fiction, and Literary Tradition, eds. Marjorie Pryse, and Hortense J. Spillers. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

Hall, Chekita T. Gloria Naylor's Feminist Blues Aesthetic. New York: Garland Publishing, 1998.

Hall, Lynda. "Passion(ate) Plays 'Wherever We Found Space' Lorde and Gomez Queer(y)ing Boundaries and Acting In." Callaloo 23, no. 1 (2000): 394-421.

Hamlet, Janice D. "Assessing Womanist Thought: The Rhetoric of Susan L. Taylor." Communication Quarterly 48, no. 4 (Fall 2000): 420-437.

Hankins, Rebecca. "Uncovering Black Feminist Writers 1963-90: An Evaluation of Their Coverqge in Research Tools." Reference and User Services Quarterly 48, no.3 (2009): 270-286.

Hardman-Cromwell. "Living in the Intersection of Womanism and Afrocentrism: Black Women Writers." In Living in the Intersection:Womanism and Afrocentrism in Theology, ed. Cheryl Anne Sanders. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1995.

Harris, Trudier. "The Color Purple: Revisions and Redefinitions." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 2, no. 1 (1985): 14-18.

          . "From Exile to Asylum: Religion and Community in the Writings of Contemporary Black Women." In Women's Writing in Exile, eds. Mary Lynn Broe, and Angela Ingram. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.

          . From Mammies to Militants: Domestics in Black American Literature. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982.

          . "Native Sons and Foriegn Daughters." In New Essays on Native Son, ed. Kenneth Kinnamon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

          . "On The Color Purple, Stereotypes, and Silence." Black American Literature Forum 18, no. 4 (1984): 155-161.

          . Saints, Sinners, and Saviors: Strong Black Women in African American Literature. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

          . "The South as Woman: Chimeric Images of Emasculation in Just Above My Head. "In Studies in Black American Literature, Volume 1: Black American Prose Theory, eds. Joe Weixlmann, and Chester J. Fontenot. Greenwood, FL: Penkevill, 1984.

          . "This Disease Called Strength: Some Observations on the Compensating Construction of Black Female Character." Literature and Medicine 14, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 109-126.

          . "Three Black Women Writers and Humanism: A Folk Perspective. "In Black American Literature and Humanism, ed. R. Baxter Miller. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1981.

          . "Toni Morrison: Solo Flight Through Literature Into History." World Literature Today 68 (1994): 9-14.

          . What Women? What Canon? African American Women and the Canon. "In Speaking the Other Self: American Women Writers, ed. Jeanne Campbell Reesman. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1997.

Henderson, Mae G. "The Color Purple: Revisions and Redefinitions." In Alice Walker,ed. Harold Bloom.New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1989.

          . "Writing the Work and Working the Rites." In Feminism and Institutions: Dialogues on Feminist Theory. Cambridge: Blackwell, 1989.

          . "Speaking in Tongues: Dialogics, Dialectics, and the Black Woman's Literary Tradition." In Feminist Theorize the Political, eds. Judith Butler, and Joan W. Scott. New York: Routledge, 1992. Reprinted in Aesthetics in Feminist Perspective, eds. Hilde Hein, and Carolyn Korsmeyer, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993). Reprinted in Changing Our Words: Essays on Criticism, Theory, and Writing by Black Women, ed. Cheryl A. Wall, (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989). Reprinted in Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader, eds. Patrick Williams, and Laura Chrisman. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994). Reprinted in Women, Autobiography, Theory: A Reader, eds. Sidonie Smith and Julia Watson. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998).

          . "Stories of O(Dessa): Stories of Complicity and Resistance. "In Female Subjects in Black and White: Race, Psychoanalysis, Feminism, eds. Elizabeth Abel, Barbara Christian, and Helen Moglen. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

          . "Toni Morrison's Beloved: Re-Membering the Body as Historical Text." In Comparative American Literature, ed. Hortense J. Spillers. New York: Routledge, 1991. Reprinted in Discourses of Sexuality: From Aristotle to AIDS, eds., (Ann

Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993).

          . "(W)riting the Work and Working the Rites." Black American Literature Forum 23, no. 4 (1989): 631-660. Reprinted in Feminism and Institutions: Dialogues on Feminist Theory. Ed. Linda Kaufman. (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1989).

Henderson, Mae Gwendolyn, ed. Introduction.Borders Boundaries, and Frames.New York: Routledge, 1995.

Hernton, Calvin. The Sexual Mountain and Black Women Writers. New York: Anchor, 1987.

Hickman, Mark S. "Feminism: Black Women on the Edge." Women and Language 12, no. 1 (1989): 5-14.

Higashida, Cheryl. Black Internationalist Feminism: Women Writers of the Black Left. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2011.

Holland, Sharon P. "On Waiting to Exhale: Or What to do When You're Feeling Black and Blue, A Review of Recent Black Feminist Criticism." Feminist Studies 12, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 101-112.

          . "'Which Me Will Survive': Audre Lorde and the Development of a Black Feminist Ideology." Critical Matrix: The Princeton Journal of Women, Gender, and Culture. 31 March 1988, 1+.

Holloway, Karla F.C. "The Body Politic." Subjects and Citizens: Nation, Race, and Gender From "Oroonoko" to Anita Hill, eds. Michael Moon, and Cathy Davidson.Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995.

          . The Character of the Word: The Texts of Zora Neale Hurston. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

          . Codes of Conduct: Race, Ethics and the Color of Our Character. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

          . "The Interdependence of Men's and Women's Individuation. " . "In New Dimensions of Sprituality: A Biracial and Bicultural Reading of Toni Morrison's Novels, eds. Karla Holloway and Stephanie A. Demetrakopoulos. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

          . "Life is Art is Culture: The Politics of Collaboration." In New Dimensions of Sprituality: A Biracial and Bicultural Reading of Toni Morrison's Novels, eds. Karla Holloway and Stephanie A. Demetrakopoulos. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

          . Moorings and Metaphors: Figures of Culture and Gender in Black Women's Literature. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1992.

          . "On Morrison and Black Female Memory." In New Dimensions of Sprituality: A Biracial and Bicultural Reading of Toni Morrison's Novels, eds. Karla Holloway and Stephanie A. Demetrakopoulos. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

          . "Response to Sula: Acknowledgement of Womanself." In New Dimensions of Sprituality: A Biracial and Bicultural Reading of Toni Morrison's Novels, eds. Karla Holloway and Stephanie A. Demetrakopoulos. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Holloway, Karla, F.C. and Stephanie Demetrakopoulos. "Remembering Our Foremothers: Older Black Women, Politics of Age, Politics of Survival as Embodied in the Novels of Toni Morrison." Women and Politics 6, no. 2 (1986): 13-34.

Holmes, Linda Janet, and Cheryl A. Wall, eds. Savoring the Salt: The Legacy of Toni Cade Bambara. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007.

Homans, Margaret. "'Racial Composition': Metaphor and the Body in the Writing of Race." In Female Subjects in Black and White: Race, Psychoanalysis, Feminism, eds. Elizabeth Abel, Barbara Christian, and Helene Moglen. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

hooks, bell. "Black Women Writing: Creating More Space." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 2, no. 1 (1985): 44-46.Reprinted in Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black (Boston: South End Press, 1989).

          . "Giving Ourselves Words: Dissident Black Woman Speech." Zeta Magazine, January 1989, 39-42.

          . "Reading and Resistance." In Alice Walker: Critical Perspectives Past and Present, eds. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and K.A. Appiah. New York: Amistad Press, 1993.

          . "Writing the Subject: Reading The Color Purple." In Critical Essays on Toni Morrison, ed. Nellie McKay. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1988.

          . "Saving Black Folk Culture: Zora Neale Hurston as Anthropologist and Writer." In Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics.Boston: South End Press, 1990.

Houston, Marsha. "Multiple Perspectives: African American Women Conceive Their Talk." Women and Language 23, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 11-17.

          . "The Politics of Difference: Race, Class, and Women's Communication." In Women Making Meaning: New Feminist Directions in Communication, ed. Lana F. Raklow. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Houston, Marsha and Olga Idriss Davis, eds. Centering Ourselves: African american Feminist and Womansist Studies of Discourse. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2002.

Hua, Linh U. "Reproducing Time, Reproducing History: Love and Black Feminist Sentimentality in Octavia Butler's 'Kindred'." African American Review 44, no. 3. (Fall 2011): 391-407.

Hubbard, Dolan. Recovered Writers/Recovered Texts: Race, Class and Gender in Black Women's Literature. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997.

Hudson-Weems, Clenora. Africana Womanism: Reclaiming Ourselves Troy, Michighan: Bedford Publishers, 1993.

          . Africana Womanist Literary Theory. Africa World Press, 2004.

Hull, Gloria T. "Afro-American Women Poets: A Bio-Critical Survey." In Shakespeare's Sisters: Feminist Essays on Women Poets, eds. Sandra M. Gilbert, and Susan Gubar. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979.

          . "Alice Dunbar-Nelson: A Personal and Literary Perspective." In Between Women: Biographers, Novelist, Critics, Teachers, and Artists Write about Their Work on Women, eds. Carol Ascher, Louise DeSalvo, and Sara Ruddick. Boston: Beacon Press, 1984. Originally published in Feminist Studies 6 (1980): 314-320.

          . "Black Women Poets from Wheatley to Walker." In Sturdy Black Bridges: Visions of Black Women in Literature, eds. Roseann P. Bell, Bettye J. Parker, and Beverly Guy-Sheftall. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1979. Originally published in Negro American Literature Forum 9 (1975): 91-96.

          . "Black Woman Writers and the Diaspora." The Black Scholar 17, no. 2 (1986): 2-4.

          . "Channeling the Ancestral Muse: Lucille Clifton and Dolores Kendrick." In Feminist Measures: Soundings in Poetry and Theory, eds. Lynn Keller, and Cristanne. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1994. Reprinted in Female Subjects in Black and White: Race, Psychoanalysis, Feminism, eds. Elizabeth Abel, Barbara Christian, and Helene Moglen. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

          . Color, Sex and Poetry: Three Women Writers of the Harlem Renaissance.Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

          . "History/My History." In Changing the Subjects: The Making of Feminist Literary Criticism, eds. Gayle Greene, and Coppelia Kahn. London: Routledge, 1993.

          . "Living on the Line: Audre Lorde and Our Dead Behind Us." In Changing Our Words: Essays on Criticism, Theory, and Writing by Black Women, ed. Cheryl A. Wall. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989.

          . "Researching Alice Dunbar-Nelson: A Personal and Literary Perspective." In All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women's Studies, ed. Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell Scott, and Barbara Smith. Old Westbury, NY: The Feminist Press, 1982.

          . "Rewriting Afro-American Literature: A Case for Black Women Writers." The Radical Teacher 6 (May 1977): 10-14. Reprinted in Politics of Education: Essays from Radical Teacher, eds. Robert C. Rosen, Leonard Vogt, and Michael Apple, (Albany: State University of New York, 1990).

          . "To Be a Black Woman in America: A Reading of Paula Marshall's Reena." Obsidian 4, no. 3 (1978): 5-15.

Ikard, David. Breaking the Silence: Toward a Black Male Feminist Criticism. Louisiana State University, 2007.

James, Joy. "'Discredited Knowledge' in the Nonfiction of Toni Morrison." In Women of Color and Philosophy, ed Naomi Zack. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2000.

Jewell, Terri. "Barbara Smith and Kitchen Table Women of Color Press." Hot Wire: The Journal of Women's Music and Culture, 6, no. 2 (May 31,1990): 20.

Johnson, Cheryl Lynn. "A Womanist Way of Speaking: An Analysis of Language in Alice Walker's The Color Purple, Toni Morrison's Tar Baby and Gloria Naylor's The Women of Brewster Place. "In Critical Perspectives to Gloria Naylor, eds.Sharon Felton and Michelle C. Loris. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997.

Jones, Sharon L. Rereading the Harlem Renaissance: Race, Class, and Gender in the fiction of Jessie Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston, and Dorothy West. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Jordan, June. "On Richard Wright and Zora Neale Hurston: Notes Toward a Balancing of Love and Hatred." Black World 23 (August 1974).

          . "Where is the Love?" In Civil Wars.Boston: Beacon Press, 1981.Originally published in the Memory and Spirit of Frances, Zora, and Lorraine: Essays and Interviews on Black Women and Writing, ed. Juliette Bowles. (Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Arts and Humanities, Howard University, 1979). Reprinted in Making Face, Making Soul, Haciendo Caras:Creative and Critical Perspectives by Feminists of Color, ed. Gloria Anzaldua. (San Francisco, CA: Aunt Lute Books, 1990).

Joyce, Joyce Ann. "Race, Culture, and Gender in Langston Hughes's The Ways of White Folks." In Langston Hughes: The Man, His Art, and His Continuing Influence, ed. James C. Trotman. New York: Garland, 1995.

Jua, Roselyne M. "Circles of Freedom and Maturation in Hannah Crafts' The Bondswoman's Narrative." Journal of Black Studies 40, no. 2 (November 2009): 310-326.

Kamitsuka, Margaret D. "Reading the Raced and Sexed Body in The Color Purple: Patterning White Feminist and Womanist Theological Hermeneutics." Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 19, no. 2 (Fall 2003): 45-66.

Kaplan, Sara Calrke. "Love and Violence/Maternity and Death: Black Feminism and the Politics of Reading (Un)representability." Black Women, Gender, and Families 1, no. 1 (Spring 2007): 94-124.

Khaleghi, Mahboobeh. "Female Leadership in Gloria Naylor's Novels: Bloodmothers, Othermothers, and Community Othermothers." Journal of Social Sciences 26, no. 2 (Feb 2011): 131-138.

King, Lovalerie. "African American Womanism: From Zora Neale Hurston to Alice Walker." In The African American Novel, ed. Maryemma Graham. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Kohzadi, Hamedreza, Fatemeh Azizmohammadi, and Shahram Afrougheh. "A Study of Black Feminism and Womanism in Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye From the Viewpoint of Alice Walker." International Journal of Academic Research 3 no. 2 (March 2011): 1307-1312.

Korenman, Joan S. "African-American Women Writers, Black Nationalism and the Matrilineal Heritage." CLA Journal 38, no. 2 (1994): 143-61.

Kirkland, David E. "4 Colored Girls Who Considered Suicide/When Social Networking Was Enuf: A Black Feminist Perspective on Literacy Online." In Adolescents' Online Literacies: Connecting Classrooms, Digital Media & Popular Culture, ed . Donna E. Alvermann. New York: Peter Lang, 2010.

Kubitschek, Missy Dehn. Claiming the Heritage: African-American women Novelists and History. Jackson: University Press of Missouri, 1991

          . "Subjugated Knowledge: Toward a Feminist Exploration of Rape in Afro-American Fiction. "In Black Feminist Criticism and Critical Theory, eds. Joe Weixlmann, and Houston A. Baker, Jr. Greenwood, FL: Penkevill, 1988.

Kuenz, Diane J. "The Bluest Eye: Notes on History, Community, and Black Female Subjectivity." African American Review 27, no. 3 (1993): 421-431.

Langley, April. "Lucy Terry Prince: The Cultural and Literary Legacy of Africana Womanism." Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 3 (Fall 2001): 153-164.

Lemons, Gary L. Black Male Outsider: Teaching as a Pro-Feminist Man. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2008.

Logan, Shirley. "Rhetorical Strategies in Ida B. Wells' Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in all its Phases." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 8, no. 1 (1991).

          . We Are Coming: the Persuasive Discourse of Nineteenth-Century Black Women.Carbondale, IL: Southern Illionois University Press, 1999.

          . "'When and Where I Enter': Race, Gender and Composition Studies." In Feminism and Composition Studies: In Other Words, ed. Susan C. Jarratt and Lynn Worsham.New York: Modern Language Association, 1998.

Lorde, Audre. "Above the Wind: An Interview With Audre Lorde." Interview by RowellCharles H. Callaloo 14, no. 1 (1991): 83-95.

          . I Am Your Sister: Collected and Unpublished Writings of Audre Lorde. Edited by Rudolph P. Byrd, Johnetta Betsch Cole, and Beverly Guy-Sheftall. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

          . "Sharing Our True Color." Callaloo 14, no. 1 (1991): 67-71.

          . Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1984.

Mahala, Macelle. " Black Feminist Performance." In Penumbra: The Premier Stage For African American Drama. Minneapolis: University Of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Mann, Regis. "Theorizing 'What Could Have Been': Black Feminism, Historical Memory, and the Politics of Reclamation." Women's Studies 40, no. 5 (2011): 575-599.

Marshall. Carmen Rose. Black Professional Women in Recent American Fiction. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2004.

McCluskey, Audrey T. "Afterwords: Black Women and Feminism." In Women of Color: Perspectives on Feminism and Idenity, ed. Audrey T. McCluskey. Bloomington, IN: Women's Studies Program, Indiana University, 1985.

McCray, Donald. "Womanist Theology and Its Efficacy for the Writing Classroom." The Journal of the Conference on College Composition and Communication 52, no. 4 (June 2001): 521-552.

McDowell, Deborah. "Boundaries: Or, Distant Relations and Close Kin." In Afro-American Literary Study in the 1990s, eds. Houston A. Baker Jr. and Patricia Redmond. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

          . The Changing Same: Black Women's Literature, Criticism, and Theory.Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

          . "'The Changing Same:' Generational Connections and Black Women Novelists." In Critical Essays on Toni Morrison, ed.Nellie McKay. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1988.

          . "In the First Place: Making Frederick Douglass and the Afro-American Narrative Tradition. "In African American Autobiography: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. William L. Andrews. Englewood cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993.

          . "It's not Safe. Not Safe at All: Sexuality in Nella Larsen's Passing." In The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader, eds. Henry Abelove, Michele Aina Barale, and David M. Halperin. New York: Routledge, 1993. Originally published as the introduction to Quicksand and Passing (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers, 1986).

          . "The Neglected Dimension of Jessie Redmon Fauset." In Conjuring: Black Women, Fiction, and Literary Tradition, eds. Marjorie Pryse and Hortense J. Spillers. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

          . "Negotiating Between Tenses: Witnessing Slavery after Freedom - Dessa Rose." In Slavery and the Literary Imagination, eds. Deborah McDowell and Arnold Rampersad.Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

          . "New Directions for Black Feminist Criticism." Black American Literature Forum 14 (October 1980). Reprinted in The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory, ed. Elaine Showalter (New York: Pantheon, 1985). Reprinted in The Changing Same: Black Women's Literature, Criticism, and Theory (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995).

          . "Pecs and Reps: Muscling in on Race and the Subject of Masculinities." In Race and the Subject of Masculinities, eds. Harry Stecopoulos and Michael Uebel.Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.

          . "Reading Family Matters." In Haunted Bodies: Gender and Southern Texts, eds. Anne Goodwyn Jones, and Susan V. Donaldson. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1997; Originally published in Changing Our Own Words: Essayson Criticism, Theory, and Writing by Black Women, ed. Cheryl A. Wall, (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989).

          . "Recycling : Race, Gender, and the Practice of Theory." In Feminisms: An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism, eds. Robyn R. Warhol and Diane Price Herndl. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997.Reprinted in Studies in Historical Change, ed. Ralph Cohen, (Charlottsville: University of Virginia Press, 1992).

          . "'The Self and the Other': Reading Toni Morrison's Sula and the Black Female Text." In Critical Essays on Toni Morrison, ed. Nellie Y McKay. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1988.

          . "The Self in Bloom: Alice Walker's Meridian." CLA Journal 24 (March 1981): 262-275. Reprinted in Alice Walker: Critical Perspectives Past and Present, eds. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and K.A. Appiah. New York: Amistad Press, 1993.

          . "Slavery as a Sacred Text:Witnessing in Dessa Rose." In Living in the Intersection:Womanism and Afrocentrism in Theology, ed. Cheryl Anne Sanders. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1995.

          . "'That nameless...shameful impulse': Sexuality in Nella Larsen's Quicksand and Passing." In Black Feminist Criticism and Critical Theory, eds. Joe Weixlmann

and Houston A. Baker Jr. Greenwood, FL: Penkevill, 1988.

McKay, Nellie Y. "Alice Walker's 'Advancing Luna - and Ida B. Wells': A Struggle Toward Sisterhood." In Rape and Representation, eds. Lynn Higgins and Brenda Silver. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.

          . "Black Women's Literary Scholarship: Reclaiming an Intellectual Tradition." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 6, no. 1 (1989).

          . "'Crayon Enlargements of Life': Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God as Autobiography. "In New Essays on Their Eyes Were Watching God, ed. Michael Awkward. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

          . "The Girls Who Became Women: Childhood Memories in the Autobiographies of Harriet Jacobs, Mary Church Terrell and Anne Moody." In Tradition and the Talents of Women, ed. Florence Howe. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

          . "Literature and Politics: Black Feminist Scholars Reshaping Literary Education in the White University, 1970-1986." In Left Politics and the Literary Profession, eds. Lennard J. Davis and M. Bella Mirabella.New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

          . "Reflections on Black Women Writers: Revising the Literary Canon." In Feminisms: An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism, eds. Robyn R. Warhol, and Diane Price Herndl. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997.Originally published in The Impact of Feminist Research in the Academy, ed. Christie Farnham, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987).

          . "Response to 'The Philosophical Bases of Feminist Literary Criticism.'" New Literary History 19, no. 1 (1987): 164.

          . "W.E.B. Du Bois: The Black Woman in His Writings: Selected Fictional and Autobiographical Portraits." In Critical Essays on W.E. B. Du Bois, ed. William L. Andrews. Boston: Hall, 1985.

          . "'What Were They Saying?' Black Women Playwrights of the Harlem Renaissance." The Harlem Renaissance Re-Examined, ed. Victor A. Kramer. New York: AMS Press, 1987.

McLendon, Jacquelyn Y. "A Position of Kinship." Women's Review of Books February 1991, 19.

McShine, Lilly. "Black Feminist Language." Kinesis (February 2000): 9.

Miles, Diana. Women, Violence, & Testimony in the Works of Zora Neale Hurston. New York: Peter Lang, 2003.

Mitchell, Angelyn. The Freedom to Remember: Narrative, Slavery, and Gender in Contemporary Black Women's Fiction. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002.

Mittlefehldt, Pamela Klass. "A Weaponry of Choice: Black American Women Writers and the Essay." In The Politics of the Essay: Feminist Perspectives, eds. Ruth-Ellen Boetcher Joeres, and Elizabeth Mittman. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993

Montelaro, Janet J. Producing a Womanist Text: The Maternal as Signifier in Alice Walker's The Color Purple. Victoria, BC: English Literary Studies University of Victoria, 1996.

Mori, Aoi. Toni Morrison and Womanist Discourse. New York: Peter Lang, 1999.

Morris, Margaret Kissan. "Audre Lorde: Textual Authority and the Embodied Self." Frontiers 23, no. 1 (2002): 168+

Morris, Susana M. "Black Girls Are From the Future: Afrofututrist Feminism in Octavia E. Butler's Fledgling." Women's Studies Quarterly 30, no. 3-4 (Fall 2012): 148-168.

Mossell, Mrs. N.F. The Work of the Afro-American Woman. Philadelphia: Geo S. Ferguson, 1908. Reprinted by Oxford University Press, 1988.

Mullen, Harryette. "Artisitc Expression was Flowing Everywhere: Alison Mills and Ntozake Shange, Black Bohemian Feminists in the Early 1970s." Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism 4, no. 2 (2004): 205-235.

          . "Runaway Tongue: Resistant Orality in Uncle Tom's Cabin, Our Nig, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, and Beloved." In The Culture of Sentiment: Race, Gender, and Sentimenatlity in Nineteenth Century America, ed. Shirley Samuels. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Murray, Simone. "The Women's Press, Kitchen Table Press and Dilemmas of Feminist Publishing." The European Journal of Women's Studies 5 (1998): 171-193.

Neal, Susan. Can't I Love What I Criticize?: The Masculine and Morrison. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 20017.

Negron-Muntaner, Frances. "Watching Tongues Untie(d) While Reading Zami". In Feminism, Multiculturalism, and the Media: Global Diversities, ed. Angharad N. Valdivia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1995.

Ogunyemi, Chikwenye Okonojo. "Womanism: The Dynamics of the Contemporary Black Female Novel in English." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 11, no. 11 (1985):

O'Neale, Sondra. "Inhibiting Midwives, Usurping Creators: The Struggling Emergence of Black Women in American Fiction. "In Feminist Studies, Critical Studies, ed. Teresa de Lauretis.Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

O'Reilly, Andrea. Toni Morrison and Motherhood: A Politics of the Heart. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2004.

Parker, Bettye J. "Complexity: Toni Morrison's Women-An Interview Essay." In Sturdy Black Bridges: Visions of Black Women in Literature, eds. Roseann P. Bell, Bettye J. Parker and Beverly Guy-Sheftall.Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1979.

Pennington, Dorothy L. "The Discourse of African American Women: A Case for Extended Paradigms." In Understanding African American Rhetoric: Classical Origins to Contemporary Innovations, eds. Ronald L. Jackson II and Elaine B. Richardson. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Peters, Pearlie. "'Ah Got the Law in My Mouth': Black Women and Assertive Voice in Hurston's Fiction and Folklore." CLA Journal 37. 3 (1994): 293-302.

Peterson, Carla L. Doers of the Word: African American Women Speakers & Writers in the North (1830-1880). New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

          . "Subject to Speculation: Assessing the Lives of African-American Women in the Nineteenth Century." In Women's Studies in Transition: The Pursuit of Interdisciplinarity, eds. Kate Conway-Turner, Suzanne Cherrin, Jessica Schiffman, and Kathleen Doherty Turkel. Newark: University of Delaware press, 1998.

Peterson, Elizabeth A. African American Women: A Study of Will and Success.Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., 1992.

Pettis, Joyce.Difficult Survival: Mothers and Daughters in The Bluest Eye." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 4, no. 2 (1987): 26-29.

Plant, D.G. Every Tub Must Sit on its Own Bottom: The Philosophy and Politics of Zora Neale Hurston. Urbana, NY: Univeristy of Illinois Press.

Pough, Gwendolyn D. "Girls in the Hood and Other Ghetto Dramas: Representing Black Womanhood in Hip-Hop Cinema and Novels." Check it While I Wreck it: Black Womanhood, Hip-Hop Culture, and the Public Sphere. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2004.

          . My Cipher keeps Movin' Like a Rollin Stone: Black Women's Expressive Cultures and Black Feminist Legacies." In Check it While I Wreck it: Black Womanhood, Hip Hop Culture, and the Public Sphere. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2004.

Prettyman, Quandra. "Visibility and Difference: Black Women in History and Literature--Pieces of a Paper and Some Ruminations". In The Future of Difference, eds. H. Eisenstein and A. Jardine. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1985.

Reed, Pamela Yaa Asantewaa. ":Africana Womanism and African Feminism: A Philosophical, Literary, and Cosmological Dialectic on Family." Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 3 (Fall 2001): 168-176.

Rifkin, Mark. "'A Home Made Sacred by Protecting Laws': Black Activist Homemaking and Geographies of Citizenship in Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl." Diffrences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 18, no. 2 (2007): 72-102.

Rigney, Barbara Hill. The Voices of Toni Morrison. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1991.

Roberts, Diane. The Myth of Aunt Jemima: Represntations of Race and Region. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Robinson, Cynthia. "The Evolution of Alice Walker." Women's Studies 38, no. 3 (April 2009): 293-3111.

Robinson, Joyce Russell. "Defiance and Hope: The Christian Temperment in Nineteenth-Century African American Women's Narrative." In Perspectives on Womanist Theology, ed. Jacquelyn Grant. Atlanta: ITC Press, 1995.

Rushing, Andrea Benton. "Comparative Study of the Idea of Mother in Contemporary African and African-American Poetry." Colby Library Quarterly 14 (1979): 275- 88.

          . "God's Divas: Women Singers in African-American Poetry." In Women in Africa and the African Diaspora: A Reader, eds. Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, and Andrea Benton Rushing. Washington, D.C.: Harvard University Press, 1996.

          . "Images of Black Women in Afro-American Poetry." In Afro-American Women: Struggles and Images, eds. Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, 1978.Originally published in Black World September 197, 18-30.

          . "On Becoming a Feminist: Learning From Africa." In Women in Africa and the African Diaspora: A Reader, eds. Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, and Andrea Benton Rushing. Washington, D.C.: Harvard University Press, 1996.

Sadoff, Dianne F. "Black Matrilineage: The Case of Alice Walker and Zora Neale Hurston." In Black Women in America: Social Science Perspectives, ed. Micheline R. Malson et al.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. Originally published in Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 11, no. 1 (1985).

Sanchez-Eppler, Karen. "Bodily Bonds: The Intersecting Rhetorics of Feminism and Abolition.". In Interracialism: Black-White Intermarriage in American History, Literature, and Law, ed. Werner Sollers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000; Originally published in Representations 24 (Fall 1988): 28-59.

Setka, Stella. "Haunted by the Past: Traumatic Rememory and Black Feminism in Gayl Jone's Corregidora." Mosaic: A Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature 47, no. 1 (March 2014): 129-144.

Sharpe , Patricia, F.E. Mascia-Lees, and C.B. Cohen. " White Women and Black Men: Differential Responses to Reading Black Women's Texts." College English 52, no. 2 (February 1990): 142-154.

Shinn, Thelma J. "The Wise Black Women Mentors in the Fiction of Octavia E. Butler." In Conjuring: Black Women, Fiction, and Literary Tradition, eds. Marjorie Pryse and Hortense J. Spillers. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

Shockley, Ann Allen. "The Black Lesbian in American Literature: An Overview." Conditions Five 2, no. 1 (1979): 133-142.

Showalter, Elaine. "A Criticism of Our Own: Autonomy and Assimilation in Afro-American and Feminist Literary Theory. "In The Future of Literary Theory, ed. Ralph Cohen. New York: Routledge, 1989.

Simson, Rennie. "The Afro-American Female: The Historical Context of the Construction of Sexual Identity. "In Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality, eds. Snitnow, Ann, Christine Stansell and Sharon Thompson. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983.

Smith, Barbara. "A Press of Our Own: Kitchen Table Women of Color Press." Frontiers: A Journal of Women's Studies 10, no. 3 (1989): 11-13.

          . "Toward a Black Feminist Criticism." In All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of us Are Brave, Black Women's Studies, eds. Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell Scott and Barbara Smith.Old Westbury, NY: The Feminist Press, 1982. Originally published in Conditions Two 1, no. 2 (1977): 27-28. Reprinted in the Memory and Spirit of Frances, Zora and Lorraine: Essays and Interviews on Black Women and Writing, ed. Juliette Bowles (Washington, D.C.: Howard University, 1979). Reprinted in Falling Into Theory: Conflicting Views on Reading Literature, ed. David H. Richter (Boston: Bedford, 1994.).Reprinted in Within the Circle: An Anthology of African American Literary Criticism From the Harlem Renaissance to the Present, ed. Angelyn Mitchell (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994.).

          . "Teaching About Black Women Writers." Women's Studies Quarterly 25, no. 1-2 (1997): 100-102.

          . "The Truth That Never Hurts: Black Lesbians in Fiction in the 1980s." In Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, ed. C. T. Mohanty. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

          . "Whose American History?: Gays, Lesbians, and American History." Gay Community News 20, no. 4 (1995): 9-12.

          . "Women of Color: Our Stories." New Statesman 8 June 1984: 23-24.

Smith, Barbara, and Beverly Smith. "Across the Kitchen Table: A Sister-to-Sister Dialogue." In This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color, eds. Cherrie Moraga and Gloria Anzaldua. New York: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, 1983.

Smith, Pamela A. "Green Lap, Brown Embrace, blue body: The Ecospirituality of Alice Walker." Cross Currents 48, no. 4 (Winter 1998): 471+.

Smith, Stephanie. "Octavia Butler: A Retrospective." Feminist Studies 33, no. 2 (Summer 2007): 385-393.

Smith, Valerie. "Black Feminist Theory and the Representation of the 'Other'." In Changing Our Own Words: Essays on Criticism, Theory, and Writing by Black Women, ed. Cheryl A. Wall. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989.Reprinted in Feminisms: An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism, eds. Robyn R. Warhol and Diane Price Herndl. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. 1997.

          . "Convergences: 4/29/92." Not Just Race, Not Just Gender. New York: Routledge, 1998.

          . "Dorothy West's Family Album." Emerge July-August 1995, 61.

          . "Gender and Afro-Americanist Literary Theory and Criticism." In Within the Circle: An Anthology of African American Criticism from the Harlem Renaissance to the Present, ed. Angelyn Mitchell. Durham: Duke University Press, 1994. Originally published in Speaking of Gender, ed. Elaine Showalter (New York: Routledge, 1989).

          . "The Quest for and Discovery of Identity in Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon." Southern Review 21, no. 3 (1985): 721-732.

          . "Reading the Intersection of Race and Gender in Narratives of Passing." Diacritics 24, nos. 2-3 (1994): 43-57.

          . "Split Affinities: The Case of Interracial Rape." In Theorizing Feminism: Parallel Trends in the Humanities and Social Sciences, eds. Hermann, Anne C. and Abigail J. Stewart. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994. Reprinted in Not Just Race, Not Just Gender: Black Feminist Readings, (New York: Routledge, 1998).

Smith-Wright, Geraldine. "Revision as Collaboration: Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God as Source for Alice Walker's The Color Purple." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 4, no. 2 (1987): 20-24.

Somerville, Siobhan B. "'The Prettiest Specimen of Boyhood': Cross-Gender and Racial Disguise in Pauline E. Hopkins Winona." In Skin Deep, Spirit Strong: The Black Female Body in American Culture, ed. Kimberley Wallace-Sanders. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002.

Spillers, Hortense. "All the Things You Could Be by Now If Sigmund Freud's Wife Was Your Mother': Psychoanalysis and Race." Critical Inquiry 22, no. 4 (1996); Reprinted in Female Subjects in Black and White: Race, Psychoanalysis, Feminism, eds. Elizabeth Abel, Barbara Christian and Helene Moglen. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997); Boundary II 23, no. 3 (1996): 75-141.

          . "Changing the Letter: The Yokes, the Jokes of Discourse: Or, Mrs. Stowe, Mr. Reed." In Slavery and the Literary Imagination, eds. Deborah McDowell, and Arnold Rampersad. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

          . "Chosen Place, Timeless People: Some Figurations on the New World." In Conjuring: Black Women, Fiction, and Literary Tradition, eds. Marjorie Pryse and Hortense Spillers.Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

          . Comparative American Identities: Race, Sex, and Nationality in the Modern Text. New York: Routledge, 1991.

          . "The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual: A Post-Date." Boundary 221, no. 3 (1994): 65-116.

          . "Cross-Currents, Discontinuities: Black Women's Fiction." In Conjuring: Black Women, Fiction, and Literary Tradition, eds. Marjorie Pryse and Hortense J. Spillers. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

          . "A Hateful Passion." In Toni Morrison, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea

House Publishers, 1990.

          . "Interstices: A Small Drama of Words." Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality, ed. Carol A. Vance. London: Pandora, 1992.

          . "Kinship and Remembrances: Women on Women." Feminist Studies 11, no. 1 (1985): 111-125.

          . "Mama's Baby, Papa's Maybe: An American Grammar Book." Diacritics 17, no. 2 (1987): 65-85. Reprinted in Feminisms: An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism, eds. Robyn R. Warhol, and Diane Price Herndl. (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997). Reprinted in Within the Circle: An Anthology of African American Literary Criticism from the Harlem Renaissance to the Present, ed. Angelyn Mitchell, (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994). Reprinted in The Black Feminist Reader, eds. Joy James and Tracey Denean Sharpley-Whiting. (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000).

          . "'An Order of Constancy': Notes on Brooks and the Feminine." The Centennial Review 29, no. 2 (1985): 223-248.

          . "'The Permanent Obliquity of an In(pha)llibly Straight': In the Time of the

Daughters and the Fathers." In Changing Our Own Words: Essays on Criticism, Theory, and Writing By Black Women, ed. Cheryl A. Wall.New Brunswick, NJ:Rutgers University Press, 1989.

          . "The Politics of Intimacy." In Sturdy Black Bridges: Visions of Black Women in Literature, eds. Roseann P. Bell, Bettye J. Parker, and Beverly Guy-Sheftall. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1979.

          . "Reading the Future, Future Reading." Women's Review of Books. 8, no. 5 (1991).

          . "Review Essay: 'Turning the Century': Notes on Women and Difference." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 3, nos. 1-2 (1984): 178-85.

Splawn, P. Jane. ":Recent Developments in Black Feminist Literary Scholarship: A Selective Annotated Bibliography." Modern Fiction Studies 39, no. 3-4 (Fall-Winter 1993): 819-834.

Stallings, L.H. Mutha' is Half a Word: Intersections of Folklore, Vernacular, Myth, and Queerness in Black Female Culture. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2007.

Stephens, Judith L. "Anti-Lynch Plays by African American Women: Race, Gender, and Social Protest in American Drama." African American Review 26, no. 2 (1992): 329-339.

Stephens, Ronald J, Maureen Keaveny, and Venetta K. Patton. "Come Colour My Rainbow: Themes of Africana Womanism in the Poetic Vision of Audrey Kathryn Bullett." Journal of Black Studies 32, no. 4 (March 2002): 464-479.

Stetson, Erlene. "Remodeling: A Personal Journey Toward Phillis Wheatley, Literary Foremother. In Women of Color: Perpspectives on Feminism and Identity, ed. Audrey T. McCluskey. Bloomington, IN: Women's Studies Program, Indiana University, 1985.

Stover, Johnnie M. "Black Women Autobiographers' Encounter with Gender, Race, and Class." In Rhetoric and Resistance in Black Women's Autobiography. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003.

Tate, Claudia. "Allegories of Black Female Desire; or, Rereading Nineteenth-Century Sentimental Narratives of Black Feamle Authority." In Changing Our Own Words: Essays on Criticism , Theory, and Writing by Black Women, ed. Cheryl A. Wall. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989.

          . Black Women Writers at Work. New York: Continuum, 1983.

          . Dark Princess: A Romance.Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1995.

          . Domestic Allegories of Political Desire: The Black Heroine's Text at the Turn of the Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

          . "Notes on the Invisible Woman in Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man." In Speaking of You: The Vision of Ralph Ellison, ed. Kimberly W. Benston. Washington, DC: Howard University Press, 1987.

          . "On Black Literary Women and the Evolution of Critical Discourse." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 5, no. 1 (1986): 111-123.

          . "Reshuffling the Deck; Or, (Re) Reading Race and Gender in Black Women's Writing." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 7, no. 1 (1988): 119-132.

          . ed. Introduction. The Works of Katherine Davis Chapman. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Taylor, Carol S. "Establishing a New Order: Recording the Black Female Voice in The Color Purple." In Feminism in Practice: Extending Boundaries, ed., Katerine Loring. Ann Arbor, MI: GLCA Women' studies Program, 1987.

Thomas, Greg. Hip-Hop Revolution in the Flesh: Power, Knowledge, and Pleasure in Lil' Kim's Lyricism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Thompson, Betty Taylor. "Common Bonds From Africa to the U.S.: Africana Womanist Literary Analysis." Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 3 (Fall 2001): 177-184.

Thompson, Lisa B. "Narrating Sexuality in Contemporary African American Autobiography." In Beyond the Black Lady: Sexuality and the New African American Middle Class. Urbanna: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

Trace, Jacqueline. "Dark Goddess: Black Feminist Theology in Morrison's Beloved." Obsidian II 6, no. 3 (1991): 14-30.

Tylee, Claire M. "Womanist Propaganda, African American Great War Experience, and Cultural Strategies of the Harlem Renaissance: Plays By Alice Dunbar-Nelson and Mary Burrill". Women's Studies Interantional Forum 20, no. 1 (1997): 153-163.

Vander, R. Goldman. "Self Definition and Silence: Black Feminist Thoughts and August Wilson (Scattered Thoughts for a work in Progress)". In Nature of a Sistuh: Black Women's Lived Experiences in Contemporary Culture, eds. Trevy McDonald and T. Ford-Ahmed. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1999.

Verge, Shane Trudell. "Revolutionary Vision: Black Women Writers, Black Nationalist Ideology, and Interracial Sexuality." Meridians: Feminism, Race, and Transnationalism 2, no.2 (2002): 101-125.

Wade-Gayles, Gloria. "Anti-Sexist Celebration of Black Women in Literature: The Sexual Mountain and Black Women Writers and a Conversation with Calvin Hernton. Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 6, no. 1 (1989): 45-48.

          . "Black, Southern, Womanist: The Genius of Alice Walker." In Southern Women Writers: The New Generation, ed. Tonette Bond Inge. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1990.

          . "Black Women Journalist in the South, 1880-1905: An Approach to the Study of Black Women's History." Callaloo 4, no. 1-3 (1981): 138-152.

          . No Crystal Stair: Visions of Race and Sex in Black Women's Fiction. New York: Pilgrim Press, 1984.

          . She Who is Black and Mother: In Sociology and Fiction." In The Black Woman, ed. Rose La Frances Rodgers. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1980.

          . "The Truths of Our Mothers Lives: Mother-Daughter Relationships in Black Women's Fiction." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 1, no. 2 (Fall 1984): 8-12.

Walker, Alice. In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983.

          . "In Search of Zora Neale Hurston." Ms. 3, no. 9 (March 1975).

Wall, Cheryl. Changing Our Own Words: Essays on Criticism, Theory, and Writing by Black Women. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989.

          . "Histories and Heresies: Engendering the Harlem Renaissance." Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism 2, no. 1 (2001): 59-76.

          . "Mules and Men and Women: Zora Neale Hurston's Strategies of Narration and Visions of Female Empowerment." Black American Literature Forum 23, no. 4 (1989): 661-80.

          . "On Dolls, Presidents, and Little Black Girls." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 35, no. 4 (Summer 2010): 796-801.

          . "Poets and Versifiers, Signers and Signifiers: Women of the Harlem Renaissance." In Women, the Arts, and the 1920s in Paris and New York, eds.Kenneth W. Wheeler and Virginia Lee Lussier. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1982.

          . "Whose Sweet Angel Child? Blues Women, Langston Hughes, and Writing During the Harlem Renaissance." In Langston Hughes: The Man, His Art, and His Continuing Influence, ed. James C. Trotman. New York: Garland, 1995.

          . Women of the Harlem Renaissance.Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

          . Worrying the Line: Black Women Writers, Lineage, and Literary Tradition. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

          . "Zora Neale Hurston: Changing Her Words." In American Novelists Revisited: Essays in Feminist Criticism, ed. Fritz Fleischmann. Boston: Hall, 1982.

Wallace, Michele. "Variations on Negation and the Hersey of Black Feminist Creativity." In Reading Black, Reading Feminist: A Critical Anthology, ed. Henry Louis Gates Jr. New York: Meridian, 1990. Originally published in Heresies: A Feminist Publication on Art and Politics 6, no. 4 (1989). Reprinted in Invisibility Blues: From Pop to Theory, (New York: Verso, 1990).

          . . "Who Dat Say Who Dat When I Say Who Dat? Zora Neale Hurston Then and Now." Voice Literary Supplement April 1988, 18-21.

Washington, Mary Helen. "Anna Julia Cooper: The Black Feminist Voice of the 1890s." Legacy: A Journal of American Women Writers 4, no. 2 (1987): 3-15.

          . "Black Women Image Makers: Their Fiction Becomes Our Reality." Black World 23, no. 10 (1974): 10-18.

          . "'The Darkened Eye Restored': Notes for a Literary History of Black Women." In Within the Circle: An Anthology of African American Literary Criticism From the Harlem Renaissance to Present," ed. Angelyn Mitchell. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1994.

          . "Declaring (Ambiguous) Liberty: Paule Marshall's Middle-Class Women." In Sister Circle: Black Women and Work, eds. Sharon Harley and The Black Women and Work Collective. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002.

          . "An Essay on Alice Walker." In Sturdy Black Bridges: Visions of Black Women in Literature, eds. Roseann P. Bell, Bettye J. Parker and Beverly Guy-Sheftall.Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1979. Reprinted in Alice Walker: 'Everyday Use,' ed. Barbara Christian. (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994). Reprinted in Alice Walker: Critical Perspectives Past and Present, eds. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and K.A. Appiah. (New York: Amistad Press, 1993).

          . Plain, Black, and Decently Wild: The Heroic Possibilities of Maud Martha." In The Voyage In: Fictions of Female Development, eds. Elizabeth Abel, Marianne Hirsch and Elizabeth Langland. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England for Dartmouth College, 1983.

          . "I Sign My Mother's Name: Alice Walker, Dorothy West, Paule Marshall." In Mothering the Mind: Twelve Studies of Writers and Their Silent Partners," eds. Ruth Perry and Martine Watson Brownley. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1984.

          . "Teaching Black-Eyed Susans: An Approach to the Study of Black Women Writers." Black American Literature Forum 11 (1977): 20-24.

          . "These Self-Invented Women: A Theoretical Framework for a Literary History of Black Women." In Politics of Education: Essays From Radical Teacher, eds. Robert C. Rosen and Leonard Vogt. Albany: State University of New York, 1990.

Washington, Mary Helen, ed. Invented Lives: Narratives of Black Women 1860-1960. New York: Anchor Press Book, 1987.

          . "New Lives and New Letters: Black Women Writers at the End of the Seventies." College English 43 (Summer 1983): 293-322.

          . "Re (Visions): Black Women Writers--Their Texts, Their Readers, Their Critics." Black-Eyed Susans/Midnight Birds: Stories By and About Black Women. New York: Anchor Books, 1990.

Washington, Teresa. "Power of the Word/Power of the Works: The Signifying Soul of Africana Women's Literature." Femspec 1 (June 30, 2005): 58+.

Waxman, Barbara Frey. "Canonicity and Black American Literature: A Feminist View." MELUS: The Journal of the Society for the Study Multiethnic Literature of the United States 14, no. 2 (1987): 87-93.

Weems, Renita. "'Artists Without Art Form': A Look at One Black Woman's World of Unrevered Black Women." Conditions 5: The Black Women's Issue 2, no. 2 (1979): 48-58.

Welsing, Frances, June Jordan, Acklyn Lynch, and Barbara Smith. "'Black Women Writers and Feminism' Panel: Question and Answer Session." In the Memory of the Spirit of Frances, Zora, and Lorraine: Essays and Interviews on Black Women and Writing, ed. Juliette Bowles. Washington, D.C.: Institute for the Arts and Humanities, Howard University, 1979.

White, Frances E. " The Evidence of Things Not Seen." In Dark Continent of Our Bodies: Black Feminism and the Politics of Respectability. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2001.

Wilentz, Cheryl. Binding Cultures: Black Women Writers and the African Diaspora.Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.

Wilkerson, Margaret B. "Lorraine Hansberry: The Complete Feminist." Freedomways 19, no. 4 (1979): 235-245.

Williams, Bettye J. "Nella Larsen: Early Twentieth-Century Novelist of Afrocentric Feminist Thought." CLA Journal 39, no. 2 (December 1995): 165+.

Williams, Kim D. Hester. ":'Fix My Life': Oprah, Post-racial Economic Dispossession, and the Precious Transfiguration of PUSH." Cultural Dynamics 26, no. 1 (March 2014): 53-71.

Williams, Sherley Anne. Give Birth to Brightness: A Thematic Study in Neo-Black Literature. New York: Dial Press, 1972.

          . "Papa Dick and Sister-Woman: Reflections on Women in the Fiction of Richard Wright." In American Novelists Revisited: Essays in Feminist Criticism. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1982.

          . "Some Implications of Womanist Theory." Callaloo: A Journal of African American Arts and Letters 9, no. 2 (1986): 303-308. Reprinted in Griot: Official Journal of the Southern Conference on Afro-American Studies 6, no. 2, (1987): 40-45. Reprinted in Within the Circle: An Anthology of African American Literary Criticism from the Harlem Renaissance to the Present,, ed. Angelyn Mitchell, (Durham: Duke University Press, 1994).

Willis, Susan. Specifying: Black Women Writing the American Experience. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1987.

Young, Elizabeth. "Warring Fictions: Iola Leroy and the Color of Gender." In Subjects and Citizens: Nation, Race, and Gender From "Oroonoko" to Anita Hill, eds. Michael Moon, and Cathy Davidson. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995.

Zackodnik, Teresa G. "'Rich Thought and Polished Pen': Recirculation and Early African American Feminism." Nineteenth Century Gender Studies 6, no. 1 (Summer 2010). Accessed 13 September 2011.

- click here to return to the top of page and menu -
gutter spacer border spacer
border spacer gutter spacer border spacer
border spacer gutter spacer This Web site was made possible by a grant from the Librarians Association of the University of California. Author: Sherri L. Barnes, UCSB Libraries.
Updated: 2/20/15
Return to UCSB Libraries Women's Studies Research Guide or UCSB Libraries home page.

All images, artwork, and design are copyrighted © and may not be used or reproduced without the express written consent from the following: Background image extrapolated from "True Self" © Karin Turner. "Movin' On" © Irmagean. Site design © Gwen Harlow. License to use images may be available through private treaty with the artist.
gutter spacer border spacer
border spacer gutter spacer menu spacer gutter spacer body spacer gutter spacer border spacer
borderspacer gutter spacer menu spacer gutter spacer body spacer gutter spacer border spacer
spacer